109 terms

medical terms

Pilot operate AC interact with other people
Hypoxia occurs
when the oxygen available in the blood supply is insufficient to meet the needs of body tissues. Early signs of hypoxia relate to higher mental functions.
Respiratory controls of the body react to the amount of CO2 in the blood. During exercise the
body uses more oxygen and produces more CO2. This results in an excess of CO2 in the blood. The respiratory center in the brain reacts to this surplus increasing both the depth and rate of breathing.
This removes the excess CO2 from the body. Once this excess is removed, the breathing rate returns to normal.
SHELL concept
Software Hardware Environment Liveware Liveware
Decompression sickness
A painful condition seen in divers who ascend too quickly, in which gas, especially nitrogen, forms bubbles in blood vessels and other tissues; also called "the bends."
CO2 poisoning
Headaches, dizziness, disorientation, Nausea, fatigue, can very from person to person, cherry red complextion
Motion sickness
Avoid head movement n close eyes
Alcohol percent allowed, time laps allowed
0.02 , 8hours
Uncontrolled12hrs, controlled +30ft, 24hrs
Sleep REM
(rapid eye movements) cycle starts moving backwords toward stage one. Brain engages in low-amp, fast and regular beta waves. vivid dreaming.
Hypoxia symptoms
Impair judgement,slow reaction,apprehension muscular impairment
Physiological stress examples
fatigue, physical fitness, and poor diet
Night visions
Focus off center X CHECK
Gas trapped in body or muscle caused by difference in pressure
Stress is.....
Symptoms of Hypoxia
Personality change, impaired judgment, slow reaction, mental, muscle incoordination diminished vision and hearing, memory impairment
Threats are defined as....
Events that occur beyond influence of flt crew -increase ops complexity which must be mintain marginal safety
Error is defined as...
Action or inaction of flt crew that lead to deviation from organizatinal or crew intention or expectation
Physical effect of stress examples
Sweating, increase heart rate
Leading question is an indicator of
Poor situational awareness
Eyes composition, how it works
CONE max visual acuity ,discriminate color, poor in low light. RODS peripheral vision, and low light
Types of Hypoxia
Hypoxic Insuffucient OXY reach blood
Anaemic Decreased concentration functional hemoglobin
Stagnant inadicuate blood flow
Histotoxic impaired use of oxy by tissue
Define TEM
Threat and Error Management - most proactive option to maintain margin of safety in flt ops
What are 4 Ps
TEM Environmental Threats are
Weather: thunderstorms, turbulence, icing, wind shear, cross/tailwind, very low/high temperatures.
ATC: traffic congestion, TCAS RA/TA, ATC command, ATC error, ATC language difficulty, ATC non-standard phraseology, ATC runway change, ATIS communication, units of measurement (QFE/meters).
Airport: contaminated/short runway; contaminated taxiway, lack of/confusing/faded signage/markings, birds, aids U/S, complex surface navigation procedures, airport constructions.
Terrain: High ground, slope, lack of references, "black hole".
Other: similar call-signs.
ATC threat is......
ATC: traffic congestion, TCAS RA/TA, ATC command, ATC error, ATC language difficulty, ATC non-standard phraseology, ATC runway change, ATIS communication, units of measurement (QFE/meters).
Organizational Threats are
Operational pressure: delays, late arrivals, equipment changes.
Aircraft: aircraft malfunction, automation event/anomaly, MEL/CDL.
Cabin: flight attendant error, cabin event distraction, interruption, cabin door security.
Maintenance: maintenance event/error.
Ground: ground handling event, de-icing, ground crew error.
Dispatch: dispatch paperwork event/error.
Documentation: manual error, chart error.
Other: crew scheduling event
One of the objective of TEM
to understand error management (i.e., detection and response),
3 classifications of Errors in TEM are
Aircraft handling error
procedural error
Communication error
example of aircraft handling errors are
Manual handling/flight controls: vertical/lateral and/or speed deviations, incorrect flaps/speedbrakes, thrust reverser or power settings.
Automation: incorrect altitude, speed, heading, autothrottle settings, incorrect mode executed, or incorrect entries.
Systems/radio/instruments: incorrect packs, incorrect anti-icing, incorrect altimeter, incorrect fuel switches settings, incorrect speed bug, incorrect radio frequency dialled.
Ground navigation: attempting to turn down wrong taxiway/runway, taxi too fast, failure to hold short, missed taxiway/runway.
Procedural Errors are.....
SOPs: failure to cross-verify automation inputs.
Checklists: wrong challenge and response; items missed, checklist performed late or at the wrong time.
Callouts: omitted/incorrect callouts
Briefings: omitted briefings; items missed.
Documentation: wrong weight and balance, fuel information, ATIS, or clearance information recorded, misinterpreted items on paperwork; incorrect logbook entries, incorrect application of MEL procedures.
Communication errors are....
Crew to external: missed calls, misinterpretations of instructions, incorrect read-back, wrong clearance, taxiway, gate or runway communicated.
Pilot to pilot: within crew miscommunication or misinterpretation
Undesired aircraft states are defined as ...
'flight crew-induced aircraft position or speed deviations, misapplication of flight controls, or incorrect systems configuration, associated with a reduction in margins of safety"
Examples of undesired aircraft states would include......
lining up for the incorrect runway during approach to landing, exceeding ATC speed restrictions during an approach, or landing long on a short runway requiring maximum braking.
example of Threat
Events such as equipment malfunctions or ATC controller errors would be an also reduce margins of safety in flight operations, but these would be considered threat
Undesired Aircraft States, grouped under three basic categories derived from the TEM are...
Aircraft handling errors,
Ground navigation,
Incorrect aircraft configurations,
Incorrect aircraft configurations are....
Incorrect systems configuration.
Incorrect flight controls configuration.
Incorrect automation configuration.
Incorrect engine configuration.
Incorrect weight and balance configuration.
Undesired Aircraft State for Ground navigation are
Proceeding towards wrong taxiway/runway.
Wrong taxiway, ramp, gate or hold spot
Undesired Aircraft State for Aircraft handling are
Aircraft control (attitude).
Vertical, lateral or speed deviations.
Unnecessary weather penetration.
Unauthorized airspace penetration.
Operation outside aircraft limitations.
Unstable approach.
Continued landing after unstable approach.
Long, floated, firm or off-centreline landing.
TEM countermeasure examples include...
briefings, call-outs and SOPs, as well as personal strategies and tactics.
Hypoxic Hypoxia is...
insufficient of oxygen in the inspired air.
Anaemic Hypoxia is.....
reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Stagnant Hypoxia is...
oxygen deficiency in the body due to poor blood circulation
Histotoxic Hypoxia is...
inability of the body tissues. Poisions such as drugs and alcohol are the usual
3 levels of situational awareness are...
monitor, evaluate, anticipate
Night vision shows the effect of....
hypoxia. Loss of 5-10% of night vision can occur at alt. as low as 4000 ft.
Black Hole effect is....
When a pilot approaches a runway over terrain that does not have any lights such as desert of water, judgment becomes difficult.
Acute fatigue is
the effects of normal everyday living. Acute fatigue is...the tiredness a person feels after physical or mental strain. Co-ordination and alertness become dulled and performance reduced. Good rest and sleep combined with proper nutrition and exercise prevent acute fatigue.
- improving aviation safety
SHELL liverware-liverware interface is
where the interaction between people is investigated and by training and awareness programmes aimed at increasing co-operation and communication among crew members.
Leading questions is ...
sure sign of lost situational awareness and should spell Danger immed.
What to do when spacial disorientation occurs?
Refer to instruments, develop good xcheck, trust inst
Rain on the Windshield -
Convince a pilot that the airplane is to high due to refraction the light. Error 200ft per nm.
Sinotic Barotrauma or Barosinusitis- Opening called sinus canals,
allow the pressure to equalize to the
atmosphere. The sinus canals vent air to the atmosphere as the alt. increases.
types of Attention
selective and decided
maximum visual acuity at night is achievable by
looking at objects off-center.
Illusion on up slope rw
Illusion of AC Higher than actual, ends up lower approach
Illusion on down slope RW
illusion of AC lower than actual, ends up higher approach
Illusion on narrower rw
Illusion of AC higher than actual, ends up lower approach
Illusion on Wider RW
Illusion of AC lower than actual, ends up higher approach
How can one cope with stress
a follow instructors lead
b listen to all the instructor has to say
c do the checklist and ask the instructor to shut up
d all of the above
If given an immediate T/O clearance and you are not ready you should
a T/O
b reject the clearance ..atc will understand
c ignore the clearance
d accept the clearance but finish task
#6 CRM is to improve the pilot's..
a lifestyle
b attitude
c personality traits
d home life
An accident affects
a technology
b social
c political and economics
d all the above
what to do if you suffer hyperventillation
breathe in a bag
abnormally rapid death breathing resulting in a loss of CO2
motion sickness what to do
try to hold head still, close eyes if possible
What is the Standard T Instrument panel
Air speed Indicator, Attitude Director, Altimeter Horizontal Situation Indicator
Heads up Display is so
the pilot can see the instruments on the screen and the outside world through the display
Psychological stress
Personal problems
types of stress are
Physical Stress, Physiological stress, Emotional Stress(Psychological)
slow wave sleep is
Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep state- slow-wave sleep may be to allow the brain to recover from its daily activities.
cause of different types of stressors
Any activity, event or other stimulus that causes stress. can be internal (cognitive or physical) or external (environmental) to the individual.
Physical stressors (internal&external)
are underlying conditions that can either be internal to the body (e.g., pain, hunger, lack of sleep, exhaustion), or external environmental factors (e.g., noise, pollution, over-crowding, excess heat).
In the cockpit some common environmental/physical stressors are:
Persistent radio communication noise
Sudden alarms or warning horns
Uncomfortable temperature
Engine and system noise
Cramped workspace
Air quality
Lighting conditions.
Pilot's physiological state can be
health, fatigue, lack of sleep, etc. physical condition
acute fatigue is
short lived - accepted as normal day to day circumstances
common physical stress associated with flying is
Lack of oxygen, heat, noise, vibration, normal flying duties
short term memory
limited to 6-8 items, for few seconds
long term memory
stored information can be recalled
environmental, life, and reactive are examples of
physical, psychological and reactive stressors (p62 HF pdf 1)
life stress is
Psychological stress
Psychological stressors includes
emotional, domestic, social and financial (p62 HF pdf 1)
Physical stressors (environmental) are related to
normal activities that happen in pilot's flying activities (p62 HF pdf 1)
Reactive stressor
body's physical or mental response that arise in everyday life as well as in flying situations (p62 HF pdf 1)
If you want to fly at 8000' altitude after a controlled ascent from diving, how long before you fly?
which is the highest risk for aircraft? take off or landing
situational awareness is...
constant and accurate perception of factors and conditions that affect aircraft and flt crew
what would you do if your automation is not working correctly
Revert to manual
"lets not take any chances" which character trait? Wuss?
what does "PF" mean?
Pilot flying?
what increases human errors?
fault and errors,
errors and faults,
slips and errors,
errors and dynamics
Slip and Errror
what is interpersonal related to SHELL
Liveware - Liveware
you are approaching RW runway appears wider,
Illusion low result high app, flare high
how do you cope with stress
healthy living habits, exercise, rest, relaxation strategies, eating/drinking in moderation, etc...
If you have forced landing in the Jungle, humans will keep humidity True or false?
Why do pilots deviate from SOP's?
complacency, boredom
Decompression Sickness is
aka- caisson disease -describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation
Decompression sickness symptoms
may vary from joint pain and rashes to paralysis and death
wide runway gives pilot an illusion of low.... results in
high approach, flare high
carbon monoxide effects are
carbon monoxide poisoning symptoms include
feeling sluggish, of being too warm, tightnss around the forehead, throbbing pressure in the temples and ringing in ears, severe headache, general weakness, dizziness and dimming of vision
If the AC is on speed and configured correctly in reference to TEM,what is the treat?
Outside infulence, WX ATC error AC mal function, Congested Air space, Terrain
What is the cause of Hyperventilation?
Lack of Co2, Anxiety, pain, motion sickness, heat, turbulence
What makes one more susceptible to CO2 Poisoning?
smoking, bad ventilation, lung disease
Time of useful contentiousness 25000, 30000, 35000
3-5min, 1-2min, 30-60 sec
What are the stages of information processing?
Sensory memory, perception, decision making, response.
Age related hearing loss