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Biology - Evolution Test Review
Terms in this set (22)
Homologous Structures (an example might be good here too)
A taxonomic group of organisms classified together on the basis of homologous features traced to a common ancestor. (Ex. Opposable thumbs and primates, hair and mammals, etc.)
Analogous Structures (an example might be good here
Similarities between organisms that were not present in the last common ancestor but evolved separately. (Ex. Wings of bats and
birds vs. wings of butterflies)
Vestigial Structures (an example might be good here too)
A degenerated or imperfectly developed organ or structure that has little or no utility.
A type of natural selection that favors one of the extreme variations of a trait.
A type of natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme of a trait.
A type of natural selection that favors average individuals in a population.
When formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer recognize species-specific behaviors.
The movement and exchange of genes between interbreeding populations.
Any inherited structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and
live to produce offspring.
A mechanism for change in populations. It occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce, and
pass their variations to the next generation.
The evolutionary history of a species.
Capable of being inherited.
Whenever a physical barrier divides a population.
What did Miller and Urey demonstrate with their experiment?
When cool, the mixture produced "rain" - they analyzed the chemicals in this "rain to find amino acids, sugars, and other
small organic molecules.
List the "Adaptation Basics"
Adaptations are NOT A CHOICE!
Adaptations allow organisms to survive natural selection.
You either have them and survive or don't have them and perish.
Adaptations differ by ecosystem.
Adaptations are heritable structures and characteristics that lead to species change.
Compare and contrast what natural selection and evolution act on.
Natural selections acts on phenotypes - what an organism looks like and what it is capable of. Evolution acts on populations. An
individual doesn't evolve; the group evolves due to the adaptations of the individuals.
List the requirements for survival. The list several adaptations animals might have to meet those requirements
Air is for Aquatic Animals most of them have gills, breathe at the surface, and breathe underwater, dissolved oxygen in water
comes from aquatic plants, aquatic plants release oxygen from photosynthesis. For Terrestrial Animals most of them have lungs. Water is that all animals need water to survive and want to prevent water loss for vertebrates they store water in tissues, desert species excrete uric acid (very little water), find shade, and thick skin for Invertebrates they have mucus layer - trap water in, and excrete uric acid (very little water). Heat animals need to be warm enough to function (digestion, circulation, etc.) for Endotherms it increase warmth by eating, shivering, adipose tissue (fat), feathers, and decreasing heat is the most important (Ex. Pant, sweat, and find shade, nocturnal) for Ectotherms it increase warmth by using dark pigments to absorb sunlight, and basking in the sun. Food most animals need to eat! For Sit and Wait Strategy they hide and wait for something to come by, and for spider webs, catfish, and some crocodiles for Active Hunt/Forage Strategy they go out and get it, and wolf spiders, cows, eagles, ants. Protection Most animals need to worry about predators Hide: for camouflage, mimicry, burrow is Lizards, spines and body Armor is for Armadillos, hedgehogs, for teeth and claws is for Lions, birds, for Coloring is for Poison dart frogs, the Sound is for Elephants, the Behavior is look big, play dead, and Run.
Species with similar amino acid sequence are
List the similarities between human and dolphin embryos
Fine coat of fur
Describe two methods that biologist could use to determine how closely related two organism are:
Morphology - more similarities = more closely related.
DNA - more similarities = more closely related.
Describe differential reproductive success and explain how two strategies can affect that success (hint: Many babies and no parenting vs. Few babies and parenting).
Some organisms have hundreds of offspring, but only a few survive. They produce lots of offspring so that the "survivors" -
those that are best able to compete and survive - will go on to reproduce. The best traits will continue on.
Compare and contract convergent evolution and divergent evolution.
Convergent Evolution Occurs when unrelated species occupy similar environments in different parts of the world and
Divergent Evolution Occurs when species that once were similar to an ancestral species diverge or become increasingly distinct.
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