Chapters 9 and 12
Terms in this set (60)
A specific need or desire that prompts goal-directed behavior
Feeling that underlies the behavior
Inborn, goal-directed behavior
Identified a number of instincts that he believed were essential for survival. These included such things as fear, anger, love, shame, and cleanliness.
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
State of tension/arousal caused by bodily needs
Attempt to return to homeostasis
Unlearned drive, such as hunger, based on a physiological state
Learned drive, such as ambition
A theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.
State of alertness
Optimal level of arousal for best performance on any task, more complex tasks require a lower level of arousal than less complex tasks
The degree to which an individual is motivated to experience high levels of sensory and physical arousal associated with varied and novel activities
Opponent process theory
Baseline state, we sometimes perform behaviors to move us from this state
Motivation is the behavior itself
Reward or to avoid punishment
Too much extrinsic motivation can reduce intrinsic motivation
Employers believe employees will work only if threatened or rewarded
Employers believe employees are internally motivated
First Stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Second Stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Third Stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Fourth Stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Fifth Stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Onset of eating
Hypothalamus attempts to maintain optimum weight
Must be evident in all cultures, contribute to survival, be associated with a distinct facial expression, be evident in non-human primates
Blends of primary emotions; they include remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation, found in one or more cultures.
Plutchik's Eight Emotions
Fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy, acceptance
Environmental stimuli bring on physiological changes that we interpret as emotions
Environmental stimuli elicit emotions and bodily responses simultaneously
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory
Emotions are combination of
physical and cognitive elements, based on our perception of
environmental clues and our body's
We invent explanations to label feelings, cognition comes after emotion
Primacy of emotion tied to expression of emotion, facial feedback theory
How would drive reduction theory explain a person accepting a new job with a higher salary but that requires more work and responsibility?
The person takes the job to satisfy the secondary drive of increased salary
Which aspects of hunger are controlled by the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus?
The desire to eat and the feeling of satiety, or fullness, that makes us stop eating
The Yerkes-Dodson law predicts that most people would perform an easy task best if they are at a
High level of arousal
What is the principal difference between how achievement motivation theory and arousal theory explain human motivation?
Arousal theory describes the optimum level of general arousal an individual seeks, while achievement motivation describes what type of goals the individual is motivated to scheive
Why may intrinsic motivation be more advantageous than extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivations are usually temporary
What is the main difference between theory x and theory y
Theory y managers regard employees as intrinsically motivated, theory x managers see them as extrinsically motivated
What does Schachter's two-factor theory state about the relationship between emotion and physiological reaction?
A combination of physiological reactions and our cognitive interpretation of an event produces emotion
Excessive time spent in the resistance phase of Selye's general adaptation syndrome can contribute to
Stress-related diseases like ulcers or heart conditions
Perceived control over a stressful event tend to result in
Less reported stress
The balanced physiological state we are driven to attain by satisfying our needs is called
The Garcia effect describes
Classical conditioning associating nausea with food or drink
Selye's general adaptation syndrome
Our reaction to stress
A high score on Holmes and Rahe's social readjustment rating scale correlates with
Incidence of stress-related illness
The refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality
The most common mechanism for blocking out painful feelings, individuals exclude painful thoughts from consciousness
Attributing our own repressed motives, ideas, or feelings to others.
Taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent
Reverting to childlike behavior to cope with stress
A subtle stage of denial in which we detach ourselves from our feelings about our problems by analyzing the logically and objectively.
A form of denial in which people express their ideas and emotions that are the opposite of their own with exaggerated intensity.
Involves the redistribution or repressed motives and emotions from their original objects to substitute objects.
Transforming unacceptable behaviors into acceptable ones