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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Terms in this set (35)
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church. He wrote "Candide."
French philosophe who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope because it was considered to contain "subversive" information. Diderot was also atheist.
Enlightened thinkers who sought to apply logic and reason to all aspects of life. They believed there could be human progress, which was a little bit more optimistic than previous thinkers.
Baron de Montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
Spirit of the Laws
Written by Montesquieu, this document outlined the concept of separation of powers
One of the leading females during Enlightenment. Had the most famous salon. Godmother of encyclopedia because she financed and supported Diderot.
Sometimes known as "secret societies" - these were not really secret, and sometimes even regulated by the government. But they focused on "living rightly," brotherhood of all men, religious toleration, and community involvement. Some say they promoted the Enlightenment.
spread throughout Europe during the early 18th century. It was a place were people read magazines, newspapers and exchanged ideas. It fueled the Age of Enlightenment.
Academies established by royal demand to cultivate scientific advancement. Eventually other disciplines were created for arts, music, and more. Cultivated exchange of ideas within the country.
Private drawing rooms where wealthy Parisian women would have intellectual discussions with aristocrats and prominent members of the middle class. Considered to be a way women could be involved in the Enlightenment.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) Stated that government should follow the people's "general will." His famous document is called the "Social Contract" in which he states that "Man is free, but everywhere he is in chains" - and he means by the government. His writings inspired the democratic ideals of the French Revolution.
An Italian philosopher and politician of the 18th century, Beccaria is best known for his treatise "On Crimes and Punishments," which condemned torture and the death penalty. His pamphlet also advocated a more balanced judicial system where punishment was made to somewhat fit the crime.
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men in education in particular, but also in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."
Emilie du Chatelet
A woman who was educated in the sciences. She was trained as a mathematician and physicist. She helped stimulate interest in science in France by translating Newton's work from Latin to French.
What Voltaire said about Emilie du Chatelet
She was " a great man whose only fault was being a woman."
Frederick II "The Great"
Despite constant conflict with his father, this ruler of Prussia increased the economic output of his land by conquering Silesia and creating a unifying alliance with the nobility. Abolished torture, capital punishment, and introduced new agricultural techniques. Created centralized organization was in charge of military bureaucratic affairs, combined with the local nobility's cooperation.
She was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs.
Catherine the Great
An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port. She enhanced rights of women, but did extend serfdom into new territories, which makes people question her enlightened despot status.
(r. 1780-1790) co-regent with his mother (Maria Theresa) from 1765 until her death in 1780. He controlled Catholic church closely; granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews; abolished serfdom and made it so that peasant labor was converted into cash payments. But his country was in turmoil at death and his brother reversed all of his reforms.
What was said about Joseph II on his tomb?
"Here lies Joseph II, who was unfortunate in everything he undertook."
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. His famous work was "Two Treatises of Government."
Published "Leviathan" in 1651 which argued people were naturally wicked and could not be trusted to govern themselves. Different from Divine Right though - it was a more logical and non-religious argument for Absolutism.
The source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society
Republic of Letters
Group of intellectuals who believed in sharing ideas with toleration across nations.
Famous Quote by Thomas Hobbes
"Life is nasty, brutish and short."
(1723-1790) Believed that individual interests naturally harmonized with the interests of the whole society. Published "The Wealth of Nations." Rejected mercantilism and endorsed the concept of "laissez-faire." Claimed the gov't should focus solely on protection.
Literacy Rates During the Enlightenment
80% for men; 60% for women
The Social Contract
Written by Rousseau stating that the government officials cannot rule without the consent of the people.
Two Treatises on Government
By John Locke, said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. Government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
Idea started by Rousseau that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Book written by Wollstonecraft which explained that women should have equal rights with men in education, politics, and economics
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Adam Smith's idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs. It should take a "hands off approach."
Considered the greatest advocate for toleration
Reading material for the masses
Cheap newspapers and pamphlets, sometimes called the "penny press."
World History Patterns of Interaction
Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Larry S. Krieger, Linda Black, Phillip C. Naylor, Roger B. Beck
1,467 expert-verified explanations
Anthony Esler, Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis
Modern World History
1,492 expert-verified explanations
Holt McDougal World History
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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