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Environmental Science Test
Terms in this set (46)
What is the Big Bang Theory (how was matter first formed [E=MC2] )?
Big expansion of concentrated energy. Formed all matter.
How many years ago did this occur? (The big bang)
13.8 billion years ago
What created the energy for the Big Bang?
Hydrogen and about 10-25% helium.
What was the primary element formed (+ Helium) which was the building block for all other elements?
How were all the other natural occurring elements formed?
In the universe - How many galaxies? How many stars?
100 billion galaxies, and 100 billion stars
What is the reaction that creates the energy of the stars? Changing what into what?
Fusion. Hydrogen to helium
What is the age of our sun/solar system and earth?
In addition to trace elements - what are the 3 most important things necessary for life?
Liquid Water, Carbon, Energy Source
Where is and what happened on Easter Island?
located in the pacific ocean, resources largely exhausted and over population
What are the Lessons of Easter Island - i.e. what 2 human actions caused problems?
Overpopulation and overconsumption.
What were the two results of these problems on the human population of the island?
What is Environmental Sustainability?
the ability to meet humanity's current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
What 2 things can destroy sustainability?
Overpopulation and overconsumption
What are the terms in Environmental Impact Equation (I = P x A x T)?
I = environmental impact
P = Population
A = Affluence
T = Technology (may be + or -)
What is happening to the world-wide range of affluence (wealth)?
Wealth gap is large and increasing.
What is the combined effect of increases of both population and affluence?
Increase in environmental impact
What is an Ecological Footprint?
The average of land and water required to provide a person with all the resources they consume
How does this compare across various societies/countries?(Ecological Footprint)
Bigger the foot the better the society, the smaller the foot the poorer the country
How do you find the global per capita "share" for each person?
How many people does the Ecological Footprint concept say the earth can support at the current US level of consumption?
7.2 h/ person. 2 billion
At the current world-wide consumption level? (Ecological Footprint)
2.7 h/ person. 5 billion
At the level of consumption of the poorest countries in the world?(Ecological Footprint)
0.6 h/ person. 21 billion
What is the current population of the world?
What type of global human growth rate is occurring?
What 2 historical events have effected global human growth rates?
agricultural revolution, industrial revolution
How fast is the global human population growing (people per second)?
births - deaths
What type of countries currently have the highest population growth rate?
How long does it take a population to double in size? (What is the "Rule of 70?)
What is the only country that has taken measures to control population?
What is their current population relative to the US?
China - with 4 times the population, and population density, of the US (1.4 vs 0.3 billion people; with approximately the same area 3.7 vs 3.8 million sq miles)
What country will soon replace them as the most highly populated country?
India - (with 1.3 billion people and 12 times the population density of the US)
What does the textbook say are the consequences of status quo polices - with continuing growth of population and consumption rates?
A dramatic loss of resources, (as a result of higher populations and higher per capita use of resources). Less resources result in less food and industrial production. This results in a global population crash (and likely a crash of society)
Three key things that make life possible
What are Organic & Inorganic compounds? (Are organic groceries just hype)?
What is the unique property of the element Carbon that facilitates life?
What is the basic function (role) of DNA and genes in reproduction and Natural Selection?
What are the unusual properties of liquid water that make life possible?
What is the difference between nuclear fission and fusion?
Where does each occur naturally? (fission and fusion)
What is the human made use of each?
What can (and cannot) go wrong in a nuclear power plant?
What were the 2 world nuclear reactor disasters that released large amounts of radiation?
What are the pros and cons of nuclear fission power plants?
What are the potential benefits and current status of fusion power?
What is it, examples & how is it different from nuclear? (chemical energy)
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