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Exam 2 Chapter 5
Terms in this set (110)
What is the largest system of the body?
What parts make up the integumentary system?
cutaneous membrane, accessory structures
What is cutaneous membrane known as?
What does the cutaneous membrane consist of?
outer epidermis, inner dermis
What tissue makes up the outer epidermis?
What tissue makes up the inner dermis ?
Where do accessory structures originate?
Describe the location of accessory structures.
extend throughout the epidermis to skin surface
Name the types of accessory structures of the skin.
hair, nails, multicellular exocrine glands
What are the functions of the skin?
detects sensations, protect underlying tissues and organs, excrete substances, maintains body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D3, stores lipids
The skin excretes salts, water, and organic wastes through what?
Synthesizing vitamin D3 is important for what?
What is the first layer or outermost layer of skin?
What are the characteristics of epidermis?
avascular, stratified squamous epithelium
How does epidermis get nutrients and oxygen?
diffuse from blood vessels in dermis
What are the cells of the epidermis?
What is keratinocytes made up of?
What is the location of thin skin?
covers most of body
What is the location of thick skin?
palms of hands and soles of feet
How many layers does thin skin have and of what?
four layers of keratinocytes
How many layers does thick skin have and of what?
five layers of keratinocytes
What are the structures of the epidermis? from outside to inside
Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum
Are the structures of the epidermis thick or thin skin? (5 layer of epidermis)
Stratum germinativum is also known as _______.
What cells make up the stratum germinativum?
germinative cells, merkel cells, melanocytes
The stratum germinative is attached to basal lamina by what?
Where are merkel cells found?
What is the function of merkel cells?
respond to touch
What is the function of melanocytes?
synthesize and store brown pigment melanin
The stratum spinosum is also known as what?
The stratum spinosum is produced by _________.
division of stratum germinativum
What is the stratum spinosum made up of and bounded by?
eight to ten layers of keratinocytes bound by demosomes
What cells does the stratum spinosum contain?
Dendritic cells are also known as what?
What is the dendritic cells active in?
What is stratum granulosum also known as?
What does the stratum granulosum produce?
What is keratin made of?
What is kertohyalin and what is its function?
dense granules that promote dehydration of the cell
What is stratum lucidum also known as?
Where is stratum lucidum found?
only in thick skin
The stratum corneum is also known as _________.
What is stratum corneum?
outermost layer of skin
What are the characteristics of stratum corneum?
keratinization, water resistant, perspires, sheds and replaces
What is keratinization?
forming a layer of dead protective cells and filling with keratin
What are the types of perspiration done by stratum corneum?
What happens in insensible perspiration?
interstitial fluid is lost by evaporation
What happens in sensible perspiration?
fluid excreted by sweat glands
What is the difference in skin color due to?
amount of pigment produced, not number of pigment cells
Variations in skin color arise from variation in the amount of what three pigments?
melanin, carotene, hemoglobin
________ produce melanin in __________ (layer of skin).
melanocytes, stratum germinativum
Where is melanin stored? and what are these that it's stored in?
melanosomes which are transport vesicles
Where is melanin transferred to?
Where does carotene accumulate?
epidermal cells, fatty tissues of dermis
What can carotene be converted to?
What does hemoglobin do to the skin?
changes skin color because it circulates blood specifically red blood cells
What happened to blood vessels when skin reddens?
What happens to blood flow when skin pales?
What does cyanosis do to the skin?
causes bluish skin tint
What is cyanosis and what is it caused by?
disease in lung, severe reduction in blood flow or oxygenation
What does ultraviolet radiation (UV) cause?
DNA mutation and burns leading to cancer and wrinkles
How do wrinkles come about on the skin?
deterioration of elastic fibers, reducing skin elasticity
What is jaundice and what happens to a person's body when they have it?
disease where there is a buildup of bile produced by liver, look yellow
What is addison disease and what happen's to a person's body when they have it?
disease of the adrenal gland and pituitary glands not produced enough steroid hormones, skin darkens
What is vitiligo and what does this do to a person's body?
a disease where there is loss of melanocytes, lose color
What is rickets and what does it cause to the body?
disease where there is not enough vitamin D3 or calcium, softens bones
Epidermal cells produce vitamin D3 in the presence of ________.
What does vitamin D3 facilitate?
helps absorption of calcium and phosphorous
Vitamin D3 is also known as _____.
What is vitamin D3?
What is vitamin D3 released by?
What makes up the dermis?
outer papillary layer, deep reticular layer
What tissue is the outer papillary layer made of?
What does the outer papillary layer have in it?
smaller capillaries, lymphatics, sensory neurons
What tissue is the deep reticular layer made of?
dense irregular connective tissue, connective tissue proper
What does the deep reticular layer have in it?
larger blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerve fibers
What fibers does the deep reticular tissue contain?
collagen fibers, elastic fibers
The dermis' strength and elasticity is due to what? how?
collagen fibers, elastic fibers, collagen are very strong, resist stretching but bend easily, elastic fibers allow stretching but recoil
________ limits the flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent damage to tissue.
Sagging and wrinkles can be due to what?
dehydration, age, hormonal changes, UV exposure
What are stretch marks and what do they result from?
thickened tissue, excessive stretching of skin in pregnancy or weight gain
Where is the subcutaneous layer layer located?
below the integument
What is the subcutaneous layer also known as?
What is the function of the subcutaneous layer
stabilize the skin
What is the subcutaneous layer made of?
elastic fibers, areolar tissue, adipose tissue
The human body is covered with hair except _______.
palms, soles, lips and portions of external genitalia
What are the functions of hair?
protect and insulate, guards openings, sensitive to light touch
What are the accessory structures of the hair?
arrector pili, sebaceous glands
What is an arrector pili and what is its purpose?
involuntary smooth muscle, causes hair to stand up and creates goose bumps
What are the functions of sebaceous glands?
lubricate hair, control bacteria on skin surface
Sebaceous glands and sweat glands are _______ glands.
What is an exocrine gland?
releases secretions onto skin surface
Sebaceous gland is and example of what type of exocrine gland?
holocrine gland where secretion released by bursting of cell
Sebaceous glands secrete what?
What is sebum?
oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands
What is the function of sebum?
lubricates and protects the epidermis, inhibits bacteria
Sweat glands are an example of what type of exocrine gland
apocrine gland where secretion released by shedding of cytoplasm, merocrine gland where secretion released by vesicles
What is the difference between sweat glands and sebaceous glands?
sweat glands have watery secretions while sebaceous glands have oily secretions
Where are apocrine glands found?
armpits, nipples, groin
Where are the apocrine gland's secretions released?
into hair follicles
What kind of secretions do apocrine glands release?
sticky, cloudy secretions
Which gland breaks down and causes odor?
What are apocrine glands surrounded by?
What is the function of myoepithelial cells?
squeeze apocrine gland secretions onto skin surface
_______ glands release secretions in response to hormonal or nervous signal
Merocrine glands are also known as _________.
Is merocrine gland known as endocytosis or exocytosis?
Where are merocrine glands found?
on many parts of body especially on palms and soles
What kinds of secretions do merocrine glands release?
water, salt, organic compounds
What are the functions of themerocrine sweat gland?
cools skin, excretes water and electrolytes, flushes microorganisms and harmful chemicals from skin
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