What does the Behavioral Approach exclusively focus on?
What leaders do and how they act.
The Behavioral Approach
Leadership is composed of task and relationship behaviors. Central focus is how leaders combine behaviors to influence followers toward goal accomplishment.
What did Ohio State researchers discover starting in the 1940s?
Two categories, initiating structure and consideration, accounted for most of the behavior of leaders.
Degree of desired organization and structure. Includes behavior that attempts to organize work, goals, and work relationships.
A leader with high initiating structure
Assigns group members to particular tasks or emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.
Degree of concern for others. Includes concern for the comfort, status, satisfaction, and well-being of subordinates.
A leader with high consideration
Helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all subordinates as equals.
What did University of Michigan researchers identify?
Leadership behaviors equate to performance effectiveness. Employee-oriented leaders , Production-oriented leaders, and Development-oriented Leaders.
Emphasize personal relationships. They care about the needs of their subordinates and accepted individual differences among them.
Emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job. Their main concern is accomplishing their group's tasks, and the group members are a means to that end.
Value experimentation, seeking out new ideas, and promoting change. Change-focused leaders.
Blake and Moulton's Managerial Grid
Leaders help organizations reach purpose through - Concern for Production: leaders concern for achieving organizational tasks - Concern for People: how leaders attend to people in the organization trying to achieve its goals
Huge consultant tool: "Grid" seminars still very popular
Country Club Management
High concern for people, low concern for production. Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo.
High concern for people, high concern for production. Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a "common stake" in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect.
Middle of the Road Management
Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level.
Low concern for people, low concern for production. Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership.
Low concern for people, high concern for production. Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.
Theory X (McGregor)
- Employees inherently dislike work and attempt to avoid it - Employees must be coerced in order to perform their work - Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible - Most workers place security above all other factors and will display little ambition
Theory Y (McGregor)
- Work is as natural as rest or play - People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives - The average person can learn to accept responsibility - Employees of all levels have the ability to make innovative decisions
Behavioral Approach Strengths
- Shifts the focus of leadership research - Basics supported by research -Ascertains leader's style largely comprised of two principal types of behavior -Provides a heuristic (method to help learn or discover)
Behavioral Approach Criticisms
- The link between behaviors and performance outcomes is inconsistent -Approach failed to find universal leadership style effective for all situations -Implies that the most effective leadership style is "high-high"