Agrarian culture, flourished between 800 and 1700 AD. They grew corn and beans, hunted livestock in the environment. Successful maize agriculture led to massive population growth in 900. Diversification of labor, specialization, social stratification, urban living problems, depleted resources, warfare, rapid expansion. Middle Mississippian Golden Age was 1200 to 1400: Cahokia was major urban center, tens of thousands of people living there. Complex chiefdoms, arts, but society is really extracting resources. In 1400, decline of major cities, which are eventually abandoned. Deforestation, overhunting, depleting soil (the environmental problems are read as divine intervention, so political consequences). More defensive structures, more warfare and migration. Southeast looks empty by the time Europeans arrive, free for the taking. Initial point of settlements is setting up trading posts, making money. San Sebastian de Uraba, 1509, abandoned within a year. Explorers like Vasco Nunez de Balboa have initially positive expeditions, Columbus hiring Indians as guides. Then increased conflict: 1513, Ponce de Leon explores the Caribbean, kidnaps Indians so they retaliate and attack his ship. By 1521, Spanish have conquered Mexico and are looking elsewhere (more difficult to travel because unfriendly natives, hurricanes in the gulf). Following early colonization is fraught with failures. 1526, Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon goes to modern day SC but loses food in storm, Indians abandon him, big failure. Navarez also goes to Tampa Bay, but supplies lost in storm, natives lie to him, only a couple make it back to Mexico city. 1530s, Desoto takes many Spaniards and a ton of supplies to the southeast by land, but it's still a failure. Interest in the southeast only escalates to more success in the 1560's, when the Spanish are scared French will come settle. English claim the land by "improving" and using it (take wilderness, build a fence). They have a different sense of agriculture than the natives. For the Portuguese, if we find it and map it, it's ours. Convenient because they were there first and skilled in map making. Early years of settlement, no mention of religion. For Spain, the Requerimiento. Read terms to the natives in Spanish, agree to give this up or you die. Highly formalized, ritualistic, and they claim they have consent of the people from this ceremony. Also claiming land for religious purposes. Already had system of dealing with subjective people, and people like the Aztecs were accustomed to such policies. The French create alliances with the natives, make claims through trade and conversion (moral authority). They set up rights of succession for New France. The Dutch claim land in a similar way to Portuguese. Focus on trading posts, knowing where things are. 1607: found and run by a council (initially appointed by the king). The two first presidents weren't successful, lots of conflict, disease, hunger. In 1608, John Smith becomes the 3rd president and is a strong leader, maintains close relationships with the natives. In 1609, the charter is renewed, while the Virginia Company of Plymouth fails (London Company eventually lays claim to that land, and London Company fiercely promotes Jamestown to people back in England). Eager to attract more people because so many die. When new governor Gates arrives in 1610, only 60 people left and all starving. Send out propaganda describing the area like Eden, with a natural abundance where it's difficult to not succeed. There's a weird assumption that the natives will supply food (English think they have more surplus than reality, assume everything is plentiful, it's a group of people not used to growing their own food). In 1622, the Powhatan Indians are fed up with Jamestown and make war with Virginia pretty successfully. Then in 1624, the Virginia Company loses the charter because things are going worse, Virginia becomes royal colony. (Theory: did crown actually suspend charter because the colony was about to take off with the production of tobacco...?) 1654: slavery codified into Virginia law. 1609: Henry Hudson (sails for the Dutch) "discovers" Upper New York Bay; Protestant "Puritans" flee England. In 1614, Netherlands States General grants patent for trade in North America. Dutch settlement begins, traders come to America, and they invite the Puritans who had fled to Netherlands to settle in New Netherland in 1619. Puritans still feel English, though, and in 1620 the Virginia Company of Plymouth is reorganized as the Plymouth Council for New England (permission from James I to settle in New England). Puritans from Plymouth, England arrive on the Mayflower in December of 1620 (difficult time to settle), begin to build colony, write the Mayflower Compact on the ship about how colony will be run. Initially positive contact with natives (First thanksgiving in 1621), and unlike Virginia, colony doesn't decline before uptick. 1620s, settlers arrive in waves to Plymouth. Settlers are religiously and fiscally committed to the colony. Meanwhile in England, James I dies 1625 and Charles I ascends the throne. Civil war from 1642-1651. Oliver Cromwell claims the right to run England as the "Protector" from 1649 to 1659, not as king. Political stress in England means that colonies form on their own with little interference from overseas. It's not clear who's really in charge of them. 1630s, Great Migration. Dynamic, fully developed society. Extensive political and economics networks, empires (not just tiny villages). Islamic empires in north, West African empires that were thinking about exploring and sailing like Europeans, trade with Portugal. Africa had its own form of slavery, but very different from North American slavery. Chattel slavery didn't exist in Africa (humans as commodities with no rights). Slavery in Africa not based on race, it was political. Anyone could be enslaved, more like indentured servitude. Religion sometimes played a role, slavery wasn't heritable, possible to get out of enslavement. In North America, anyone African can be enslaved (incidents of free black people being sold into slavery). Africans sell slaves to the colonies with false assumption that it's like slavery in Africa. Henry Hudson comes in 1609, "discovers" upper NY Bay. Surveys Hudson River, returns to Netherlands and publishes report (1612). Dutch trading companies begin to explore and compete for trade along North American waterways. 1611-1614, Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christians survey region. Dutch develop trade systems, fiscal relationships with natives (castorum, beaver pelt). In 1614, States General establishes a trading monopoly. Dutch claim a huge amount of space. Mouth of Hudson River seen as ideal place for settlement because harbor, access to land. Trading post established at Albany in 1614. Settlement on Noten Eyland in 1624, which then moves to the island of Manhattan in 1625 (foundation of Fort Amsterdam). Mostly trading at this location, goal isn't to build a booming city. 1626, things going well, so Dutch "purchase" Manhattan from Lenape Indians. More hospitable climate than the Chesapeake. Economically focused (no missionary focus), religious tolerance, intellectual freedom, Jews flee there, more diverse group welcomed for economic interests. Dutch often function as middle men. North English settlements: Puritan "roundheads," hated the king, well-educated, farmers and businessmen. Dutch and Swedish settlements: businessmen and financiers, non-practicing Lutherans, hated England, Cosmopolitan merchants and landowners, socially stratified society. Southern English Settlements: King's loyalists ("cavaliers"), non-practicing Church of England, 5% landed class and 95% ignorant peasants, farmers and landowners. First sustained war with natives, English blunder into it (1634-1638). Mohegans, English Wampanoag, Narragansett, Algonquians vs. Pequots and Dutch. Pequots are a rapidly expanding Indian empire, and the English side with opponent natives. Death of John Stone (English smuggler) provokes the conflict, possibly an act of retaliation for Dutch attack on the Pequot. Because tensions already heightened with expansion of Pequot and the influx of Europeans, it escalates into full blown war out of small, obscure causes. Early stages of war, Pequots do well. Turning point is the Mystic Massacre (Connecticut). The English pretend to retreat, Indians emerge from Mystic fort to chase them off. English attack Mystic and take it by surprise, light fort on fire, mostly filled with women and children. Shows taht the English are willing to meet native attacks with extreme violence. Wampanoag vs. English Colonists. Great migration means lots of people, need for more land.The English have an uneasy peace and don't want to go to war with natives. Metacom, a native heir (called Phillip by the English), talks to other natives about pushing back. They form an alliance because worried about English encroaching on their land. A praying Indian tells the English about Metacom, and Metacom is brought to public court, told not to form an alliance or land will be seized. The praying Indian is found murdered, prompting conflict because English suspect the Wampanoag. Some Wampanoag charged with murder and killed, and the natives retaliate and attack the English. Conflict escalates quickly, native village burned, many Wampanoag die. Why English concerned about native alliances? Worried about being outnumbered, want divisiveness instead of cohesion among natives. English call it a legitimate war, not rebellion or uprising (give the natives some credit). 1647-1663, Connecticut. In 1647, the "woman of Windsor" is the first accused in an official capacity. She's blamed after an epidemic sweeps the region; convicted by Winthrop and hanged. Things pick up and mostly women are accused (1648, Margaret Jones and Mary Johnson). Circle widens so people of status and of lower classes accused. Winthrop has been in England for some time, then comes back and says we shouldn't kill people for witchcraft (gets involved in science/alchemy, influenced by rationalists, starts to think we can't blame the supernatural for these issues). 1656: Ann Hibbins accuses carpenters of overcharging her, successfully sues. People think this isn't appropriate for woman, stepping out of place, so once her husband dies she's tried for witchcraft. During this period, 80+ people accused in New England; 13 women and 2 men executed. Followed by period of no accusations, 1662-1688, because of additional legislation by Winthrop, rationalism, and changes in social structures. In Winter 1692, Betty Parris and Abigail Williams start having fits, followed by Ann Putnam and Elizabeth Hubbard. They start accusing women of witchcraft: Sarah Good (itinerant beggar), Sarah Osborne (married to indentured servant), Tituba (enslaved), Martha Corey (critical of allegations), Rebecca Nurse (critical also), Dorothy Good (annoying four year old). Start by accusing women outside the bounds of society, then the circle of accusation broadens to annoying people and then to people related to the accused, e.g. spouses. More accusations lead to more confessions, and everything snowballs. In April, girls start accusing people more above reproach. In May 27, 1692, special court is established, formal trials, executions. By end of May, 62 people arrested. June-September, indictments issued, trials, death sentences. In January 1693, remaining cases are moved to Superior Court. Overall, 200+ accused, 25 died. 1715, witchcraft removed as crime from legislative documents. Native Americans: a modern political confederation, including the Mohawk, Oneida, Onandaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. Before the French and Indian War, becoming increasingly imperialist and expansionist. Held a lot of power pre-contact. 17th century: Beaver Wars against French, English, Huron, Petun, Erie, Susquehannock, Algonquian, Anishinaabe (offensive war to gain control of trade). The French start expanding into native lands in 1660, looking for a Northwest passage. In 1677, the Iroquois form an alliance with the English, the Covenant Chain, to hinder French expansion (ultimately not successful). The Iroquois League is behaving like European empires. In 1753, Covenant Chain with English is broken. Conflict between England and Spain, precursor to French and Indian War. In 1731, British Brig Rebecca is seized by Spanish patrol boat, captain Jenkin loses ear. In 1738, Parliament asks Jenkin to testify, looking for reason to fight with Spain. In 1739, George II tells the admiralty to attack Spanish ships. 1740, people of GA get involved, led by Oglethorpe, attack Augustine and fail. (Interesting because example of why GA placed as buffer zone.) 1742, Spain tries to invade GA. This shows the risk of being involved with Britain. There are benefits, but colonists can be attacked by Spain. 1744, Ft. Louisburg besieged by Massachusetts colonists. 1746: peace treaty. Begins with argument over the Ohio River Valley. 1749: British settlers ordered out of New France (difficult to enforce because lack of manpower). 1754: French forces oust VA militia from Ohio River settlement (place useful for trade and settlement). Issues would have come up anyway, but this was exacerbated by conflict in Europe. British colonists happy to fight for the interior and invest resources, but expensive war, not many allies otherwise. In early stages of war, looks like Britain will ignore America, focus on India. This changes: Pitt suggests victory in America will determine success in Europe (moral victory, England has naval power and can travel to New World, this is a power move trying to secure natural resources). Pitt also says natives are essential to winning the war (familiar with the land, can help or harm whom they want, important for trading and defense, supplement British army). Natives get involved because they rely on Europeans for goods/trade, want to gain power and influence, excuse to attack other tribes, anxiety about too rapidly expanding empire (they don't want one empire in charge of everything). War goes back and forth until turning point, Battle of Quebec. War concludes with Treaty of Paris.