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Government in America
ch. 4 and 5. Amendments and cases
Terms in this set (24)
Dred Scott v. Sanford 1856
Any slave that had escaped to a free state had no rights as a citizen and congress couldn't ban slaves in the territories.
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
"seperate but equal" It was okay to segregate, as long as the facilities were equal.
Korematsu v. U.S. 1944
kept Japanese descents in internment camps during WW2
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
University of California Regents v. Bakke 1978
state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race
Lawrence v. Texas 2003
...overturned Bowers v. Harwick, voided a Texas antisodomy law (unconstitutional to right of privacy)
Grutter v. Bollinger 2003
Race can be used as a factor for admission into a public law school as long as the policy is "narrowly tailored"
Sweatt v. Painter 1950
..., Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 1971
Guinn v. United States 1915
test for blacks (hard to pass) to vote. Test (unconstitutional)
Smith v. Allwright 1944
..., African Americans denied right to vote in primaries = violate fifteenth amendment
Barron v. Baltimore 1833
Decision holding that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities
Gitlow v. New York 1925
"states can't control rights"
Freedoms of press and speech are a fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment for impariment by states as well as fed gov.
Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971
Allowed states to provide textbooks and busing to students attending private religious schools. Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: nonsecular purpose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government.
Engel v. Vitale 1962
that state officials violated the 1st Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's school children.
Near v. Minnesota 1931
the 1st Amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint.
New York Times v. Sullivan 1964
guidelines for determining whether public officials and public figures could win damage suits for libel. They must prove that the defamatory statements wre made w/ evil "actual malice" and reckless disregard for the truth.
Mapp v. Ohio 1961
"search and seizure" the 4th Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government.
Miranda v. Arizona 1966
sets guidelines for police quetioning of accused persons to protect them against self0incriintion and to protect their right to counsel.
Roe v. Wade 1973
A state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over that during the 1st trimester, to protect mother in the 2nd trimester, and permitted to protect the fetus in the 3rd.
Griswold v. Connecticut 1965
right to privacy (right to family planning between husband and wife)
Greg v. Georgia 1976
Upheld the constituitionality of the death penalty, stating. "It is an etreme sanction"... for extremes. It is not unconstitutional. Not cruel unusual punishment.
Gideon v. Wainwright 1963
Anyone accused of a felony when iimprisonment maybe imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer. (Sixth Amendment)
the publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
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