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46. The relative concentration of potassium is
A. higher in urine than plasma or glomerular filtrate.
B. higher in plasma and glomerular filtrate than in urine.
C. about equal in plasma, glomerular filtrate, and urine.
D. lower in urine than plasma or glomerular filtrate.
E. none of the above.


47. Secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide
A. decreases sodium excretion.
B. increases sodium excretion.
C. decreases potassium excretion.
D. increases potassium excretion.
E. has no effect on either sodium or potassium excretion


48. Autoregulation refers to
A. maintaining constant GFR.
B. secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide at a constant rate.
C. secretion of renin at a constant rate.
D. getting your driver's license renewed.
E. training a toddler to use a toilet.


49. Shigatoxin is associated with
A. Balkan endemic nephropathy.
B. urinary tract infection.
C. edema.
D. hemolytic uremic syndrome.
E. hair loss.


50. At the renal plasma threshold
A. more glucose is in the filtrate than active transport can handle.
B. blood volume is so great that nephrons cannot keep up.
C. the urine has too little glucose.
D. hemodialysis is needed.
E. a kidney transplant is necessary.


51. Marvin goes on vacation to Maine and for a week eats nothing but seafood. The next week, he experiences intense pain in his big toe. He probably has
A. Balkan endemic nephropathy.
B. diuresis.
C. edema.
D. gout.
E. an ingrown toenail.


52. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is used to treat
A. kidney failure.
B. a urinary tract infection.
C. kidney stones.
D. incontinence.
E. gout.


53. The layers of a ureter are
A. outer fibrous coat, middle muscular coat, inner mucous coat.
B. inner fibrous coat, middle muscular coat, outer mucous coat.
C. inner muscular coat, middle fibrous coat, outer inner mucous coat.
D. inner vascular coat, middle neural coat, outer mucous coat.
E. the intima, the media, and the superficial layer.


54. The ________ is the tube that conveys urine outside the body.
A. ureter
B. urethra
C. collecting duct
D. afferent arteriole
E. nephron loop


55. The ureter extends downward
A. behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from above.
B. behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below.
C. in front of the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from above.
D. in front of the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below.
E. and then loops up around the bladder.


56. The micturition reflex center is in the
A. sacral segments of the spinal cord.
B. medulla oblongata.
C. pons.
D. hypothalamus.
E. kidneys.


57. Which of the following is not part of the male urethra?
A. Prostatic urethra
B. Membranous urethra
C. Penile urethra
D. Ductus deferens
E. Mucous membrane


58. The trigone is
A. a group of three neighboring nephrons in a kidney.
B. a triangular area on the floor of the urinary bladder.
C. a region where the glomerulus meets the glomerular capsule.
D. part of the Balkans where people developed kidney failure.
E. a muscle layer that surrounds each kidney.


59. The detrusor muscle is in the
A. ureter.
B. urethra.
C. brain.
D. urinary bladder.
E. kidneys.


60. Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron?
A. calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
B. renal pelvis, calyx, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
C. renal pelvis, calyx, urethra, ureter, urinary bladder
D. renal pelvis, calyx, urinary bladder, ureter, urethra
E. glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct


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