Animal Biology Unit 4

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Terms in this set (...)

stage 1; origin of life
chemical evolution, synthesis of organic monomers
3 theories for chemical evolution
primordial soup
iron sulfur world hypothesis
cosmic seeding
stage 2; origin of life
synthesis of protocells and macromolecules
protocells
a self organized spherical collection of lipids
RNA world hypothesis
proposes that the formation of RNA led to life on Earth because it is the only macromolecule known to self-replicate
stage 3; origin of life
abiogenesis
abiogenesis
the process of life arising from non-living matter
what is life?
an emergent property of complex matter
in abiogenesis, when did DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides come into the picture
DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides likely became more abundant later, as products of further RNA evolution inside cells
proteins are incapable of which of the following functions in cells?
storing information
which of the following types of organic molecule most likely made life possible?
RNA
Which theory led to the formation of the organic molecule RNA
RNA world hypothesis
what types of evolution led to more and more complex RNA molecules?
chemical evolution
RNA
carried out biological processes
DNA
blue prints for the most successful RNA and protein molecules
what are RNAs today capable of?
slice
dice
catalyze
destroy
replicate
build
code
transform
cell theory
The cell is the basic unit of all living things
all living things are composed of 1 or more cells
LUCA
the most recent common ancestor of all life on earth
3 domains of life
archaea
bacteria
eukaryotes
what group do archaea and bacteria belong to
prokaryotes
universal cell features
plasma membrane
cytosol/ cytoplasm
chromosomes/DNA
ribosomes
plasma membrane
phospholipid bilayer that separates a living organism from its environment and regulates the traffic of molecules in and out of the organism, makes a semi-closed system
cytosol/cytoplasm
thick, jelly-like fluid on the inside of a cell in which everything else is suspended
chromosomes/DNA
information carrying structure of all cells
what is different about DNA/chromosomes in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
circular in prokaryotes and linear in eukaryotes
ribosomes
molecular machines found in abundance in all cells, function as a factory for building proteins
what is different about ribosomes in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
ribosomes float freely in prokaryotes while in eukaryotes they have the choice to be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum OR float freely
unicellular
a cell that is an individual organism, includes both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
multicellular
a group of 2 or more cells that collectively form an entire organism, only eukaryotes
prokaryotic cells
cells lacking a nucleus and other organelles
what makes up the exterior protection of a prokaryotic cell?
cell wall and capsule
cell wall
rigid structure that provides protection to prokaryotic cells and prevents water loss
peptidoglycan
what cell walls are made of a sugar protein hybrid polymer,
capsule
outermost layer of prokaryotes comprised of sugars
DNA related part of prokaryote cells
nucleoid and plasmid
nucleoid
area of a prokaryotic cell where chromosome is localized
plasmid
small, circular extrachromosomal piece of DNA, carrier info but not information essential to cell survival
eukaryotes
any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
what makes prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells similar
plasma membrane, ribosomes, chromosomes, and cytosol/cytoplasm
organelle
a membrane enclosed compartment with specialized function within a eukaryotic cell
endomembrane system
the production of more organic molecules
endomembrane system members
nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum
golgi apparatus
plasma membrane
vesicles
cytoskeleton
lysosomes
nucleus
the genetic control center of eukaryotic cell, contains the chromosomes RNA and the nucleolus, information (blueprints) from chromosomes is sent out to be manufactured
nucleolus
dense spot within the nucleus where ribosomes are assembled, they are shipped out from the nucleus where they attach to the endoplasmic reticulum
nuclear envelope
phospholipid membrane that defines the nuclear compartment, protects and stores the DNA chromosome
nuclear pores
protein channels in the nuclear envelope, regulates transportation of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, executive boardroom doorway (authorized personnel only)
endoplasmic reticulum
extensive membranous network acts as the main site for protein and lipid synthesis within the cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane, recieves blueprint/recipe orders
rough ER
has ribosomes attached to it, site of protein sythesis... ribosomes manufacture proteins based on the recipes recieved from the nucleus
smooth ER
site of lipid synthesis, does not contain ribosomes produces phospholipids and steroids
why is smooth ER important in liver cells
for detoxification
why is smooth ER important in muscle cells
stores and releases calcium
transport vesicles
sacs of membranes that bud off from the cell organelles, move molecules from organelle to organelle as well as into and out of the cell, used and produced by multipleorganells
Golgi apparatus
receives, refines, stores, and distributes the chemical products of the cell
works in close partnership with the ER
acts like a distribution center by sending materials to their appropriate destinations
lysosomes
an Organelle filled with digestive enzymes for breaking down macromolecules
what organelle gives lysosomes its digestive enzyme proteins
Golgi bodies
cytoskeleton
a series of intermolecular proteins that help a cell with shape, support, and movement
function of cytoskeleton
support plasma membrane
form internal cell "highways" (vesicles) to move upon
involved in cell movement
important for cell division
cilia and flagella
hairlike projections that function either to move a cell or move things across a cell
function of cilia and flagella in single celled organisms
propel the cell through its environment
function of cilia and flagella in multicellular organisms
move liquids and molecules across the cell surface
T/F mitochondria is apart of the endomembrane system
FALSE
T/F both smooth and rough ER utilize transport vesicles
TRUE
what are vesicles that contain digestive enzymes
lysosomes
unique feature of energy organelles 1
energy organelles have their own DNA
unique feature of energy organelles 2
energy organelles have their own ribosomes
unique feature of energy organelles 3
energy organelles reproduce on their own
unique feature of energy organelles 4
energy organelles have Both a double membrane with the other membrane being similar to the membrane of other organelles and inner being very different
mitochondria
organelle where energy is generated by the breakdown of chemical compounds
Chloroplast
organelle found only in plants and algae cells, converts sunlight to chemical energy
chloroplast converting sunlight into chemical energy is a form of what?
anabolism
endosymbiosis
occurs when an organism of one species lives inside an organsim of another species
endosymbiotic theory
states that the energy organelles of eukaryotes orginated as a symbiosis between separate single-celled organisms
symbiosis
a close physical interaction between organisms of different species