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norm of reciprocity
the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future
the ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the way that person experiences them
the idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
the qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations
negative-state relief hypothesis
the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress
urban overload hypothesis
the theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it
the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
bystanders' assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergancy because no one else looks concerned
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