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14 terms

Ch 11 Exam 3

STUDY
PLAY
Prosocial Behavior
any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
altruism
the desire to help another person even if it involves a costs to the helper
kin selection
the idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
norm of reciprocity
the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future
Empathy
the ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the way that person experiences them
empathy-altruism hypothesis
the idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
altruistic personality
the qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations
in-group
the group with which an individual identifies as a member
out-group
any group with which an individual does not identify
negative-state relief hypothesis
the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress
urban overload hypothesis
the theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it
bystander effect
the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
pluralistic ignorance
bystanders' assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergancy because no one else looks concerned
diffusion of responsibility
the phenomenon whereby each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases