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Biology Test CHAPTER 5
Terms in this set (54)
More or less of the energy stored in food is released as heat than is used for useful work?
What type(s) of transport in cells depend on energy in the form of ATP?
What type of environment causes plants to wilt?
In osmosis, water moves which way across concentration gradient?.
Down the water gradient (from high water (hypotonic in solute) to low water (hypertonic in solute) concentrations)
Cholesterol is taken into cells by the process of
How many phosphates groups are in ADP?
Diffusion is the result of what kind of energy of the atoms?
Transport proteins in the cell membrane aid in what?
The sodium-potassium pump is an example of an active or passive transport mechanism?
The energy an object has by virtue of its motion is called...
Entropy increases or decreases with every time energy is converted from one form to another?
What is equivalent to 1,000 calories and the unit used to measure the energy in food?
The capacity to do work......
The principle that energy can neither be created nor destroyed is known as:
Conservation of energy
The sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism is called?
Give an example of a living thing converting chemical energy into kinetic energy.
Food to exercise
Give an example of a living thing of potential energy being converted to kinetic energy.
Sitting to running
If the molecular concentration of a substance is unchanging/the same throughout a space (often on two sides of a membrane and still having opposite processes occurring at the same time and rate) the system is in...
Equilibrium (full term is dynamic equilibrium)
What compound directly provides energy for cellular work?
Energy is transferred from ATP to other molecules by transferring a...
Phosphate group to another molecule (often a protein)
Usually enzymes are what kind of molecules?
Are enzymes selective?
Yes, they only catalyze specific reactions
What is a key characteristic of enzymes?
They are regenerated in the reaction and so can be used again and again so they are neither the product nor the reactant
What is the sodium-potassium pump an example of?
Energy of position ; stored energy
Uptake of large particles into the cell
Phagocytosis (one type of endocytosis)
Relatively low solute concentration compared to another solution.
Shrinking of cells (due to loss of water to the environment)
Concentration differences across a space
Energy of motion
Bursting of cells
Relatively high solute concentration compared to another solution.
How does the enzyme increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
Decreasing activation energy
If cells are put in salty water what will happen to the cells?
The cells will shrivel in the hypertonic
What processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell if the substance is more concentrated inside the cell than outside the cell?
The action of secreting of a protein would be the process in the cell?
Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called?
What uses ATP as an energy source?
In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will...
When one cell engulfs another cell, for instance a macrophage engulfing a virus , is an example of...
Diffusion is an example of...
Cells with a higher concentration of ions than the surrounding medium tend to...
Contractile vacuoles continually eliminate excess water from the cell in what type of environment?
What is the main energy source for cells?
What process can move solutes against their concentration gradient?
Anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely...
Result in cell death
Diffusion of water is known as
Measure of disorder
You jump off a diving board. What happens to its two forms of energy, kinetic and potential, as the you go down?
KE increases and PE decreases
How are automobiles similar to living cells?
They take organic fuels and break them smaller waste molecules and they get less energy make heat
Types of molecules that pass through the membrane due to simple diffusion would be?
Small like oxygen and carbon dioxide
Chemicals that interfere with an enzyme's activity are?
Describe how active transport and passive transport are similar and how they are different.
Both are forms of transport for the cell. (PASSIVE TRANSPORT- no energy (ATP), DOWN concentration gradient, high to low- down the slide examples Diffusion - small molecules. Facilitated diffusion- uses proteins as doors for irons. Osmosis- diffusion with water......... ACTIVE TRANSPORT, needs energy- ATP, AGAINST concentration gradient, examples Sodium- potassium pump)
The Diffusion lab you performed using eggs, describe the results you obtained, using words like hypertonic and hypotonic and say what happened to each egg and what actually moved.
Water was hypotonic and syrup was hypertonic compared to the egg. So the water went INTO egg 1 and water went OUT. Egg 1 got large and egg 2 shrank
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