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Forensics Chapter 2 Test
Terms in this set (52)
the documented and unbroken transfer of evidence
chain of custody
(indirect evidence) evidence used to imply a fact but not prove it directly
material that connects an individual or thing to a certain group (see individual evidence)
a multidisciplinary approach in which scientific and legal professionals work together to solve a crime
crime scene investigation
a hypothesis of the sequence of events from before the crime was committed through its commission
crime scene reconstruction
evidence that (if true) proves an alleged fact, such as an eyewitness account (not reliable) of a crime
the first police officer to arrive at a crime scene
a kind of evidence that identifies a particular person or thing
a folded paper used to hold trace evidence
the location where the actual crime took place
primary crime scene
a location other than the primary crime scene, but in some way related to the crime, where evidence is found
secondary crime scene
small but measurable amounts of physical or biological material found at a crime scene
the Principle of Exchange was established by who...
Dr. Edmond Locard
The principle states:
-when a person comes in contact with an object or another person, a _____-____ of physical material can occur (hair, skin cells, clothing fibers, pollen, glass fragments, debris from a person's clothing, makeup).
-study of the material can determine... (fistfight vs. brushing past someone)
-the nature and duration of the transfer
2 types of evidence are...
the two types of CIRCUMSTANTIAL evidence are
give examples of direct evidence
give examples of circumstantial evidence
trace evidence is...evidence
physical (ex. fingerprints, fibers)
give examples of class evidence
blood type (A B O)
give examples of biological evidence
give examples of individual evidence
individual evidence narrows it down to a...
class evidence narrows it down to...
a certain group
What is the difference between class and individual evidence?
Class narrows it down to a particular group while individual narrows it down to one person.
Two levels of crime scene
primary crime scene
secondary crime scene (takes place before or after)
safety & preservation
obtains warrants if needed
document and collect physical evidence
crime scene investigators (forensic)
determine the cause of death
interview witnesses and follow lead created by evidence
examines evidence that requires an expert (ex. bones, bug)
Name the seven S's of a crime scene investigation
secure the scene
separate the witnesses
scan the scene
seeing the scene
sketch the scene
search for evidence
secure the collected evidence
maintaining a chain of custody log is essential to present ____ evidence in court
it is a list of all persons who come in possession of an item of evidence; must be established for evidence to be used in court
chain of custody
___ result from collected evidence processed by the forensic lab (can be verified)
forensic lab technicians are...
specialized and process one type of evidence
Who aims to see how facts fit into the crime scenario
lab results can:
show reliability of witness accounts
establish the identity of suspects or victim
show suspects to be innocent or link them w/ a scene or victim
crime scene reconstruction involves:
forming a hypothesis of the sequence of events from before the crime was committed through its commission (motive)
when lab results don't match up with the testimony of witness
staged crime scene
to cover bankruptcy
staging a fire
to cover a murder
staging a suicide
to collect insurance money
staging a burglary
investigators initially treat all death investigations as...
4 questions asked to know if the crime scene was staged
Does the type of wound match the weapon?
Could the wound be easily self-inflicted?
What were the mood and actions of victim before the event?
What were the mood and actions of the suspect before the event?
Locard's exchange principle implies all of the following except:
blood spatter can be used to identify blood type
Why is it important to separate the witnesses at a crime scene?
to prevent the witnesses from talking to each other
examples of circumstantial evidence
examples of direct evidence
implies a fact
proves a fact
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