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drawing conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence

adaptive conservatism

evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different

in-group bias

tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group

out-group homogeneity

tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar


negative behavior toward members of out-groups


a belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group

implicit and explicit stereotypes

beliefs about the characteristics of an out-group about which we're either unaware (implicit) or aware (explicit)

ultimate attribution error

assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions

scapegoat hypothesis

claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes

just-world hypothesis

claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason (justin)

jigsaw classrooms

educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project

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