47 terms

4A: Interactions

AP Biology
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alpha glucose
beta glucose
cellulose
Carbohydrate component of plant cell walls.
starch
Storage polysaccharide of plants.
glycogen
Extremely branched polymer of glucose.
chitin
Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons.
-ose
Suffix of a sugar.
tryiacylglycerol
steroids
Made of 4 rings of carbon.
cholesterol
Steroid common in cell membranes, also in many hormones.
peptide bond
Bonds that connect amino acids.
disulphide bridges
Reinforce tertiary structure.
primary structure
Chain of amino acids.
secondary structure
Either an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.
tertiary structure
Results from interactions between side chains.
quaternary structure
Results from 2 or more polypeptide subunits.
-in
Suffix of a protein.
phosphodiester bonds
Bonds between phosphate group and pentose sugar in nucleic acids.
synthesis
To put together.
digestion
To break apart.
dehydration synthesis
Condensation reaction where molecules are connected by loss of a water molecule.
hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.
condensation reaction
Another name for dehydration synthesis.
side chain
Another term for R-group. A variable group that determines the unique chemical properties of a particular amino acid.
alpha helix
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.
beta pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, held together by hydrogen bonds.
chaperonins
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins.
saturated fatty acids
A fatty acid in which all carbons are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
unsaturated fatty acids
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
monosaccharide
A simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate.
glycosidic linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
cisternae
Flattened, membrane-bound compartments that make up the Golgi apparatus.
genomic equivalence
All cells in an organism contain the same complement of genes. These are the same set of genes that are established in the fertilized egg.
species richness
The number of different species in a community.
species diversity
The number and relative abundance of species in a community.
exponential growth
Growth of a population in an ideal, unlimited environment, represented by a J-shaped curve.
logistic growth
Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth, forming an S-shaped curve.
carrying capacity (K)
Maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period.
limiting factors
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
density dependent factors
A limiting factor of a population wherein large, dense populations are more strongly affected than small, less crowded ones.
density independent factors
Limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size.
r-selection
Also called density-independent selection. Characterized by many offspring with little or no parental care.
K-selection
Also called density-dependent selection. Characterized by few offspring with little or much parental care.
type I survivorship
Usually experience high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in later life. Usually K-selected
type II survivorship
Experience roughly a constant mortality rate regardless of age. Prey animals such as birds can follow this pattern of survival.
type III survivorship
Experience the greatest mortality early on in life, with relatively low rates of death for those surviving. Usually r-selected.
age distribution
A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population.