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Pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means
special proteins that are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological process
They are sources of energy composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; that include simple sugars
They are made up of carbon and hydrogen and they store energy and make up fats, oils, and waxes
They are made up of RNA and protein, are produced in the nucleolus and some are free and others are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as the site for proteins and lipid synthesis
Organelle that is a Flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts and packages proteins into sacs which then fuses with the plasma membrane to release the proteins into the environment outside the cell
Is the powerhouse of the cell that converts sugars into energy for the cell and it has 2 membranes
Net movement of particles from and area where there are fewer paricles than an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where they are fewer paticles of the substance
transport proteins move ions and small molecules across the membrane-Also doesn't require energy and is also called passive transport
Movement of substances across the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient (low to high) and requires energy
anabolic pathway in which light energy from the sin is converted into chemical energy for use by the cells
catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell
Stage of the cell cycle during which the cells grows and makes copies of its DNA in preparation for the next stage
Structures that contain the genetic material that is passed from generation to the next.
It is the longest phase where the nucleus and nucleolus seem to disappear. The spindle fibers form and attach to sister chromatids and centrioles migrate toward opposite poles
where sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell and line up in the middle
chromatids are pulled apart as the spindle fibers shorten and chromosomes move toward the opposite poles of the cell
Chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax; two nuclear membranes begin to form and spindle apparatus disappears
Cells that are unspecialized that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions
Where gametes are formed during a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes
Replicated chromosomes become visible and consist of 2 sister chromatids. The chromosomes are beginning to form pairs and crossing over may occur
Disorder characterized by black urine. Appears at birth and affects bones and joints and was studied by Dr. Garrod
disorder that affects the mucus-producing clands, digestive enzymes and sweat glands.
disorder that is cause by the altered genes resulting the absence of the skin pigment melanin in hair and eyes
How Tay-Sachs disease is diagnosed and what does it do to the body
identified as a cherry-red spot on the back of the eye . It is caused by the absence of the enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids called gangliosides
genetic disorder that affects the nervous system appears in individuals between 30 and 50
Incomplete dominance and give an example
the heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes Ex: snapdragons
Codominance and give an example
both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition for example sickle-cell disease
pairs of homologous chromosomes that are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph or picture
Parental strands of DNA separate serve as templates and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one new strand of DNA
Messenger that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
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