Biological Approach Studies
Terms in this set (18)
Baumgartner et al. (2008)
The aim of the study was to investigate the role of oxytocin following breaches of trust.
Bailey and Pillard
Conducted sibling studies where at least one of the siblings was gay. They found that of the gay men that have an identical twin, 52% of their twins were gay too. Only 22% of fraternal twins and 11% of adoptive brothers were gay.
Caspi et al (2003)
Longitudinal study on possible role of gene 5-HTT in depression. Found that participants with a mutation of the gene were more likely to become depressed than those with the normal gene.
Draganski et al (2004)
The aim of the study was to see whether learning a new skill - in this case, juggling - would have an effect on the brains of participants.
look at brain before and after learning to juggle three balls
increased grey matter in visual and temporal areas involved with the task
increased cell size or more connections
HM: Milner (1966)
The aim of this case study was to better understand the effects that the surgery had had on patient, could not acquire new episodic knowledge (memory for events) and he could not acquire new semantic knowledge (general knowledge about the world).
Harris and Fiske (2006)
study used fMRI to examine the role of the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in reaction to extreme outgroups (homeless individuals and drug addicts.) It found that the amygdala was activated, as well as the insula gyrus,which is associated with disgust-inducing non-human objects. However, the medial prefrontal cortex, which is the part of the brain activated when we think about other people, was NOT activated.
The aim of study was to examine the nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus of the brain. This part of the brain plays a role in the regulation of male-typical sexual behaviour.
Maguire et al (2000)
The aim of the study was to see whether the brains of London taxi drivers would be somehow different as a result of the exceptional training that they have to do to be certified. Taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus
McGaugh & Cahill (1995)
This study investigated the role of emotion and the amygdala in memory. It found that participants who heard an emotionally arousing story recalled more detail. However, when participants were given a beta blocker that interfered with the release of adrenaline, it prevented activation of the amygdala and participants recalled no more detail than those who heard the "mundane" story.
Meaney et al
Effect of glucocorticoids- stress hormones- on memory. Rats away from mothers, treatment group (handled every day, brushed to simulate grooming) or control (no contact). observed rat memory of route in milky water to platform
Newcomer et al
Studied the role of cortisol on one's ability to recall a piece of prose. Found that those that were given high levels of cortisol - equal to that of a highly stressful event - were not able to recall as much detail as those that were given cortisol equal to a low stress event or a placebo.
Rogers and Kesner
Researchers injected AcH in rats, concluding the acetylcholine played an important role in creating a memory of the maze
Rosenweig, Bennet, and Diamond (1972)
Aim of the study was to investigate whether environmental factors such as a rich or an impoverished environment would affect the development of neurons in the cerebral cortex in rats).
Sharot et al (2007)
Biological support for flashbulb memories. Activation of the amygdala was measured using fMRI imaging in participants who recalled memories of 9/11 attacks in Sep 2001, which they had witnessed. The measurements were taken years after the actual events, but amygdala activation was still seen. This suggests that the amygdala is involved in the formation of flashbulb memories (localized function).
This study found that women prefer the smell of t-shirts worn by men with dissimilar MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex). The dissimilar immune system genes would theoretically produce offspring better able to fend off more illnesses than if the MHC genes matched. This provided support for an evolutionary argument for mate selection in humans
Weissman et al (2005)
Carried out a longitudinal family study with a sample of 161 grandchildren and their parents and grandparents to study the potential genetic nature of Major Depressive Disorder.
This study investigated the effect of testosterone on aggression and found that participants were 27% stingier in an "Ultimatum game" when they received the testosterone gel instead of a placebo. The findings also suggested that they were more likely to punish others for violations of social norms.
The study used a
double-blind procedure and participants were injected with either Scopolamine or a
placebo 90 minutes before taking part in the experiment. The participants were then put into an fMRI where they were scanned while playing
the "Arena task."
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