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Intro to Critical Thinking, Critical Terms
Terms in this set (25)
Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group
a culture that places greater emphasis on loyalty to the family, workplace, or community than on the needs of the individual
the active and conscious effort to change an attitude through the transmission of a message
ideas about the nature of reality by passing thoughts and judgements
Emotional component attached to a belief
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events or simply put:
Belief + Feelings
Beliefs, behavior and feelings
Are all bi-symmetrical and influence upon one another
Peripheral route of persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. Mostly ethos examples are provided.
Central route persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. use of more logos examples, so it is harder to change anyone's mind.
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
Unconditioned stimulus [US]
a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning
Conditioned stimulus [CS]
a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
Advertising and Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov. Advertisers use principal of classical conditioning to sell products to consumers. Associate products with positive or negative unconditioned stimuli (emotional arousal, hunger/fear)
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory
proposes that people are motivated to find these five levels of needs: (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) love, (4) esteem, and (5) self-actualization. The purpose is to elevate human potential to it's apex.
Problems with "high self-esteem"
By encouraging people to have high self-esteem, we discourage them from acknowledging their low achievement. So too much self-confidence is not applicable if you cannot perform well.
Everyone is searching for a meaning in life: certainty of human mortality + finite existence = meaning of life. Stresses importance on self-transcendence. Mostly, what does life expect from us?
Socrates "The unexamined life is not worth living"
Only when we know who we are, we can find meaning in our lives. Emphasis on self-doubting why did you come to terms with what you think.
Unwritten family rules
"Learned" rules by family, not said directly to us, that we paid attention to our surroundings. Ex. parents work hard to take care of their kids; child sees that it is normal for parents to care for their kids.
Due to our fragile memories, propaganda, advertising, appeal, fear, etc.. can distort one's thinking into believing certain ideas are true, even though it may not be necessarily be the truth.
"Truthiness" (Stephen Colbert)
Coined by Stephen Colbert by 2006, this word proclaims people's wishful thinking to be accepted as "truth", even though it is not the truth.
A political culture in which debate is framed largely by appeals to emotion, disconnected from the details of policy and by the repeated assertion of talking points to which factual rebuttals are ignored.
A phrase used by Kellyanne Conway to describe demonstrable falsehoods as acceptable factual evidence.
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