Types of work in biological systems
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Terms in this set (26)
Define enzymeBiological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being change Reactants or ligands are called substratesWhat are some things that can alter enzyme activityTemperature, pH, modulator moleculesHow do enzymes work to speed up a reactionBy lowering the activation energy of a reaction. Bringing the molecules closer together to give them the opportunity to reactWhat are some ways we classify reactionsOxidation-reduction hydrolysis-dehydration addition-subtraction-exchange ligationWhat is the term for all the chemical reactions in the bodyMetabolismWhat are catabolic reactionsReactions that release energy and break down large biomoleculesWhat are anabolic reactionsReactions that require a net input of energy and synthesize large biomoleculesWhat are some of the ways that cells regulate the flow of molecules through their metabolic pathwaysControl enzyme concentration, produce allosteric and covalent modulators, using different enzymes to catalyze reversible reaction's, isolating enzymes and intra-cellular organelles, maintaining an optimum ATP to ADP ratioAllosteric modulatorBind reversibly to protein at regulatory site away from binding site changing shape of binding site. Inhibitors and activatorsThrough glycolysis how many molecules of pyruvate are created how much yield2 pyruvate molecules Yields: 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 H+What's the maximum energy yield for aerobic metabolism and what process does most of the ATP come from30-32 electron transport system (with NADH and FADH2 from the citric acid cycle)What gets converted to what and what is the yield of anaerobic metabolismPyruvate is converted into lactate 2 ATP for each glucoseWhat controls protein synthesisNuclear genes made of DNA. Codes represented by base sequence in a gene is transcribed into the complementary base code on RNAWhat is alternative splicingThe breaking up of mRNA in the nucleus to allow one gene to code for multiple proteinsWhat happens after mRNA leaves the nucleusGoes into cytosol becomes part of the ribosomal RNA unit and transfer RNA assistance to assemble amino acids into designated sequences. TranslationWhat does Post translational modification doConverts newly synthesized protein to finished form