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Introduction to Statistics
Terms in this set (22)
Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations.
Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data.
The complete collection of all measurements or data that are being considered
A subset of the population
A complete enumeration of a population.
Voluntary response sample
Composed of individuals who choose to respond to a survey because of interest in the subject. Seriously flawed study.
Examine methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of (something, especially information), typically for purposes of explanation and interpretation. Looking at graphs and given context provided.
The condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low. Usually around 5% or lower, but it range up to maybe 10-30% depending on whether it happened by chance.
An observed relationship that is large enough to be of value in a practical sense.
Order of Questions
Questions are unintentionally loaded by such factors as the order of the items being considered
The failure to obtain data from an individual or individuals selected for a sample
Misused percentages in studies... something above 100%
Numerical summary of a population describing some characteristic
A numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample- use statistics to estimate parameters
Data that consists of names, labels, or other nonnumerical values
Numerical data values that can be COUNTED
Data that can take on any value. There is no space between data values for a given domain. Graphs are represented by solid lines.
Categorical data involving names, labels, or categories that cannot be arranged in order [low to high]. Ex. surveys with y/n.
Categorical data that can be arranged in some order, no difference in data really when subtracting them from each other. Ex. course letter grades and what rank are you in college.
Numerical data on a scale, but with no meaningful zero point. It is sensible to talk about differences between values, but not ratios (e.g., 40F is not half as hot as 80F, and a person with an IQ of 140 is not "twice as smart" as someone with an IQ of 70).
a type of numerical data in which the difference between numbers is significant, but there is a fixed non-arbitrary zero point associated with the data
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