NCLEX Basic Labs
Terms in this set (77)
(1.5-2.5 mEq/L [0.75-1.25 mmol/L])
Add 7 days to first day of LMP, subtract 3 months, and add 1 year.
How many calories subtracted equate to 1 pound lost?
12-16 g/dL Women; 14-18 g/dL Men
37 - 48% Women; 45 - 52% Men
Arterial Blood Gases:
pH 7.35- 7.45
HCO3 (Bicarbonate) normal values 22-26 mEq/L
PaCO2 ( CO2 or carbon dioxide content) 35-45 mm Hg
PaO2 (oxygen saturation in arteria blood)- 80-100 mm Hg
0.6-1.35 mg/dL (< 2 in older adults)
Creatine phosphokinase (cardiac enzyme)
What meds should be held prior to dialysis?
Unless otherwise indicated by the health care provider, antihypertensives and other blood pressure-lowering medications (eg, furosemide), antibiotics, digoxin, and water-soluble vitamins (B, C, and folic acid) should be held prior to dialysis.
The International Normalized Ratio (INR) is a blood test used to monitor the effectiveness of warfarin therapy. The typical target INR is 2-3. In some instances (eg, mechanical heart valves), the therapeutic INR target is as high as 3.5. The higher the INR, the higher the bleeding risk.
A nurse should not administer warfarin if the INR is over 4.
1%-2%, High eosinophils counts are seen in allergy.
Normal neutrophils are 55%-70%. Elevated neutrophils indicate infection.
2-6 mg/dL [120-360 µmol/L] for clients age <12; high-phenylalanine foods (eg, meats, eggs, milk).
Normal values are <5% in nonsmokers and slightly higher (<10%) in smokers.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic inhalant that enters the blood and binds more readily to hemoglobin than oxygen does. When hemoglobin is saturated with CO, the pulse oximeter reading is falsely normal as conventional devices detect saturated hemoglobin only and cannot differentiate between CO and oxygen.
Central Venous Pressure
The normal CVP is 2-8 mm Hg. An elevated CVP can indicate right ventricular failure or fluid volume overload.
Normal urine output
1-2 ml/kg/hr or >30ml/hr
Clients following a vegan diet should be educated about vitamin B12 deficiency and the importance of supplementation and eating B12-fortified foods. Chronic vitamin B12 deficiency may precipitate megaloblastic anemia and neurological symptoms (eg, peripheral neuropathy, neuromotor impairment, memory loss).
When can one detect fetal heart tones?
Fetal heart tones can be detected by 7 weeks gestation.
When can one determine fetal sex?
Fetal sex may be determined on ultrasound as early as the end of 12 weeks gestation.
When can a clinician typically feel fetal movements?
Fetal movements are typically felt at around 16-20 weeks gestation.
When should vancomycin levels be drawn?
Trough serum vancomycin concentrations are the most accurate and practical method for monitoring efficacy. A trough should be obtained just prior (about 15-30 minutes) to administration of the next dose.
Normal aPTT and therapeutic aPTT.
The normal aPTT is 25-35 seconds. Heparin infusions are titrated to obtain a therapeutic value of aPTT, typically 1.5-2 times the normal value. Therapeutic value for aPTT is 46-70 seconds.
What are the steps to donning PPE?
The CDC suggests the following sequence for donning PPE: hand hygiene, gown, mask or respirator, goggles or face shield, and gloves.
What are the steps to taking off PPE?
How much Folic Acid per day is recommended for women who are trying to give birth?
Pregnant women require a minimum of 400 mcg of folic acid daily. Leafy green vegetables supply excellent dietary folic acid; alternate sources include beans, rice, peanut butter, and fortified cereals.
How do you calculate MAP?
(SBP + 2DBP)/3
A normal MAP is between 70-105 mm Hg. If the MAP falls below <60 mm Hg, vital organs may be underperfused and can become ischemic.
What are some s/s of neurogenic shock???
Neurogenic shock belongs to the group of distributive (vasodilatory) shock. It affects the vasomotor center in the medulla and causes a disruption in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS); the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) remains intact.
The imbalance of activity between the SNS and PNS results in massive vasodilation and pooling of blood in the venous circulation, causing hypotension and bradycardia, the characteristic manifestations of neurogenic shock.
What is homonymous hemianopsi?
Homonymous hemianopsia is the loss of one half of the field of vision on the same side in both eyes. Clients are taught to turn their heads and scan the area that has a visual deficit to reduce the risk of injury and self-neglect. Food and fluids should be kept within the client's field of vision to encourage intake as appropriate.
What is the maximum potassium infusion rate?
The maximum rate for infusion of IV potassium chloride through a peripheral vein is 10 mEq/hr, and the maximum rate through a central vein is 40 mEq/hr.
Theophylline has narrow therapeutic index and plasma concentrations >20 mcg/mL (111 µmol/L) are associated with theophylline drug toxicity.
Symptoms of toxicity usually manifest as central nervous system stimulation (eg, headache, insomnia, seizures), gastrointestinal disturbances (eg, nausea, vomiting), and cardiac toxicity (eg, arrhythmia).
PaO2: 80-100 mm Hg
PaCO2: 35-45 mm Hg
HCO3: 22-26 mEq/L
Saturation (SaO2): 95%-99%
Prothrombin Time (PT)
11 - 16 sec
What does a positive Romberg test mean?
A client with a positive Romberg test has a loss of sense of self in space and needs assistance with ambulation to prevent injury and provide safety.
How many wet diapers a day should an infant have?
The normal range for the number of wet diapers is 6-10/day, or approximately 1 every 4 hours. Infants create 2 mL/kg/hr normal urine output.
What are some medications that can cause Torsades de pointes?
The nurse should review the client's medical record for any condition or medication that may prolong the QT interval and precipitate another episode of torsades de pointes, including:
Antiarrhythmics (eg, sotalol, amiodarone, ibutilide, dofetilide)
Macrolide antibiotics (eg, erythromycin, azithromycin)
Electrolyte abnormalities: Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia
What is fetal tachycardia?
Fetal tachycardia is defined as a baseline heart rate above 160 beats per minute.
What positions should a patient be in who is in restraints?
Patients in restraints should not be in the supine position as it can cause aspiration. Clients in restraints should be placed in the side-lying, semi-Fowler, or high-Fowler position.
40 and up
Serum Cholesterol level
Anorexia is a common side effect of lithium (therapeutic index
[0.6-1.2 mmol/L]). Lithium toxicity produces nausea, vomiting, ataxia, and tremors.
Phenytoin (Dilantin) is an antiseizure medication with a therapeutic index of 10-20 mcg/mL (40-79 mcmol/L)
Phenytoin toxicity produces nystagmus, dysarthria, ataxia, and encephalopathy.
Normal glucose levels and RR for new borns
Expected findings for a neonate at 1-3 hours postpartum include respirations between 30-60 breaths per minute, milia, and glucose levels <70-100 mg/dL (3.9-5.6 mmol/L) but ≥40 mg/dL (2.2 mmol/L).
Leopold maneuvers are used as a systematic approach to palpating the pregnant abdomen to identify fetal presentation. These are not used as emergency interventions for umbilical cord prolapse.
The McRoberts maneuver consists of sharply flexing the thigh onto the maternal abdomen to straighten the sacrum. It is used for shoulder dystocia and will not take pressure off a prolapsed umbilical cord.
Suprapubic pressure helps to dislodge an impacted anterior shoulder from under the client's pubic bone in the event of shoulder dystocia and will not relieve pressure off a prolapsed umbilical cord.
What position do you use if you have a prolapsed cord?
A client with a prolapsed umbilical cord should be placed on hands and knees (eg, knee-chest position) or Trendelenburg position to relieve pressure on the cord until emergency delivery.
What level suction should be set up for ETT suction?
<120 mm Hg
Fasting total cholesterol
A fasting total cholesterol <200 mg/dL (5.2 mmol/L) is normal.
Urine Specific Gravity
(Dilute) 1.010-1.030 (Concentrate)
General protocol for initial correction of HHK or DKA.
Clients with diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state require IV normal saline as a priority due to severe dehydration. Once fluids are given as a bolus, insulin is initiated. The serum potassium levels can be elevated in the initial stages despite a low total body potassium. Potassium repletion is started once the serum potassium levels are normalized or trending low (from elevated levels).