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Animal Behavior chapter 1
Terms in this set (45)
the scientific study of what animals do
Animal Behavior: book reference
ancient cultures showed knowledge of this in art (i.e. Cretan wasp pendant, Minoan antelope painting, and Chinese cave paintings)
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
self initiated movement, or movement of animals controlled by their nervous system
intellectual continuity "ladder"
linear view of evolution, similar to Aristotle's "steps"
"on the Origin of Species"
-evolutionary theory was general
-interest in evolution of emotions
-linear (not ladder) view of emotions
Animal Behavior: two approaches
Ethology and Comparative Psychology
Ethology Approach: 3 parts
1. comparative method
2. fixed action patterns, sign stimuli, releasers
3. Chain of reactions
Ethology early pioneers
Tinbergen, Lorenze, and Von Frisch
A procedure for testing evolutionary hypotheses based on comparisons among species with known evolutionary relationships.
ex. nuptial gift of empid fly, why accept empty balloon?
comparative method procedure
1. identify the precursor behavior
2. examine closely related species for similar behavior
3. order behavioral steps so that ea. is next to the most similar behavior
4. compare the ordered steps against a phylogenetic tree
diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor.
Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
an innate behavior pattern
-independent of immediate control
- genetically encoded
-independent of individual learning
External stimuli that trigger FAP's
- aka releasers
-ex. goose egg retrieval- egg away from nest
ex. male stickleback fish territorial- see red (jaw)
Chain of reactions
ex. stickleback courtship dance
Comparative Psychological Approach: 3 parts
1. Morgan's canon
2. learning and reinforcement
the rule that the simplest possible interpretation for a behavioral observation should be given precedence
-cannot interpret something as highly cognitive functioning when it may not be.
- cannot put our emotions on animal
-trial and error
- classical conditioning
-trial and error learning
Thorndyke's and Pavlov's learning styles led to this new form of principles common to all organisms
- direct measure of behavior, not mental processes
-all behavior can be shaped by learning processes
Tinbergen's 4 questions
Causation, Development/Ontology, Evolution/Phylogeny, Function
ex. cardinals singing
categories of Tinbergen's 4 questions
Proximate and Ultimate
process within an animals lifetime
-causation, development/ ontology
-ex. what causes subordinates to give up reproduction?
process that occurs across generations
-function, evolution/ Phylogeny
-ex what are evolutionary origins of mongoose social behavior?
3 foundations of Evolution
1. Natural Selection
2. individual learning
3. cultural transmission and social learning
The process at the heart of Darwin's evolutionary theory
-occurs when variants of a trait that best suit an organism to its environment, and that are heritable, increase in frequency over evolutionary time.
- process requires variations, fitness differences, and heritability
- applies to behavioral traits not just morphology
ex- field crickets on Kuai
a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
xenophobia- book example
common mole rat showing aggressive stance in response to stranger
a relatively permanent change in behavior on one individual as a result of experience
ex. mouse eats something, gets sick, never eats it again.
individual learning- book example
-a female that mates with different males over time may keep track of the number of eggs she laid with ea. to determine which one is a good mate
-grasshoppers learn to associate diet type with color and odor cues
The transfer of information from individual to individual through teaching or social learning, within and between generations.
Learning through observing others.
Ex. Norway rats- cocoa or cinnamon- demonstrator eats cocoa or cinnamon, observer interacts w/ demonstrator then chooses corresponding food.
3 approaches of Ethology
1. conceptual approach
2. theoretical approach
3. empirical approach
Ethology: Conceptual approach
integrating ideas generated in different disciplines and combining them in a new cohesive way
ex. kin selection
- kin selection
- direct and indirect fitness
- inclusive fitness
Natural selection that favors altruistic behaviors by enhancing reproductive success of relatives.
the number of offspring produced plus any effects individual 1 may have on the descendants of his own offspring
the fitness that an individual gains by helping relatives pass on copies of their genes
the sum of an individual's direct and indirect fitness
two components of fitness: book example
3 vervet monkeys- mother, older daughter, juvenile daughter. mother helping either daughter is direct. sisters helping ea. other or mother is indirect
Ethology: Theoretical approach
generation of a model, usually mathematical, of some behavior
Ethology: Empirical approach
2. correlation - relationship btwn 2 variables
Empirical approach: observation
information gathering studies in which the main goal is to carefully describe how organisms behave, particularly in natural settings