Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
psychology 233 test 1
Terms in this set (111)
the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span
a group of people born at around the same time in the same place
normative history-graded influences
biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment
normative age-graded influences
biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised.
normative sociocultural-graded influences
the impact of social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual, depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership
nonnormative life events
specific, atypical events that occur in a particular person's life at a time when they do not happen to most people
involves gradual development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels.
development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences.
a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments,but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences.
refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one's parents
refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior
encompassed by nature and is any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information.
explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts or principles.
the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people's awareness and control
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
a part of the personality about which a person is unaware and is responsible for much of our everyday behavior.
unorganized, inborn part of personality present at birth that represents instincts related to sex and aggression.
What operates according to the pleasure principle?
the part of personality that is rational and adaptive
What operates on the reality principle?
the aspect of personality that represents a person's moral sense.
a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part
Erikson's Psychosocial theory
suggested that developmental change occurs throughout our lives in eight distinct stages, and each stage emerges in a fixed pattern and is similar for all people.
suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
a form of learning by consequences in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences
What are the two types of operant conditions?
Reinforcement and punishment
the process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.
the introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal of a desirable stimulus;it will decrease the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
learning by observing and imitation of the behavior of another person.
focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
Piaget theory of cognitive development
believed that all people pass in a fixed sequence of qualitatively different stages of cognitive development.(Schemes)
simple mental or action patterns
two processes that piaget suggested about growth of children's understanding of the world
assimilation and accomodation
the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking.
the process that changes existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
focuses on the multiple surroundings,systems,and processes that influence development
Bronfenbrenner's ecological approach
the perspective suggesting that different levels of environment simultaneously influence individuals
five levels of the biological approach
the everyday, immediate environment such as homes, caregivers, friends, and teachers
connects various aspects of the microsystem, linking children to parents, students to teachers, employees to bosses, and friends to friends
represents such broad influences as local government, the community, schools, places of worship, and the local media
represents larger cultural influences such as society in general, types of government, religious systems, and political thought
involves the way the passage of time, including historical events, affect children's development
the process of posing andd answering questions using careful,controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data.
seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists
types of descriptive studies
naturalistic obervation,case studies,and survey research
the observation of a naturally occurring behavior without intervention in the situation
involve extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or a small group of individuals
where people are chosen to represent some larger population and are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic
a process in which an experimenter, devises two different experiences for participants
procedures applied by an experimenter based on two different experiences devised for participants
the group receiving the treatment
the group that receives no treatment or alternative treatment
the variable that researchers manipulate in an experiment
the variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation
the behavior of one or more individuals is measured as the participants age
people of different ages are compared at the same point of time
researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time
sensorimotor stage of cognitive development
the initial major stage of cognitive development, can be broken down into six substages
Substage 1: Simple Reflexes
During this period, the various reflexes that determine the infant's interactions with the world are at the center of the infant's cognitive life.
Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions
circular reaction-an activity that permits the construction of cognitive schemes through repetition of a chance motor event
Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions
secondary circular reactions are repeated actions meant to bring about a desirable consequence on the outside world.
Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions
(8-12 months) Goal-Directed Behavior- where several schemes are combined and coordinated to create a single act to solve a problem
object permanence-the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen
Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)
Tertiary circular reactions are the deliberate variation of actions to bring desirable consequences.
Substage 6: Beginnings of Thought
(18-24 months) Mental Representation- an internal image of a past event or object.
Deferred Imitation- a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act.
Information Processing approaches
the ways that individuals take in,use , and store information
the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory.
refers to the maintenance of material saved in memory
the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used.
the process by which information is initially recorded,stored,and retrieved.
the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age
systematic,meaningful arrangement of symbols, and provides the basis for communication
refers to the basic sounds of language, called phonemes, which can be combined to produce words and sentences
the smallest language unit that communicates meaning
the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences
refers to the rules that govern word order in sentences
the understanding of speech
the use of language to communicate
through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitations, and other nonlinguistic means
when infants make speechlike but meaningless sounds at about 2 to 3 months of age continuing to about 1 year.
one-word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine meaning.
where words not critical to the message are left out
using words too restrictively
using words too broadly
language use in which language is used primarily to label objects
language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others
Learning Theory Approach
posits that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning
proposes that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development.
a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit the understanding of language
suggests that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental events
type of speech directed towards infants, characterized by short, simple sentences
the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person
the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
the intentional search for information to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events
the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
Ainsworth Strange Situation
a sequence of eight staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother
Secure Attachment Pattern
a style of attachment in which children use mother as a home base and are at ease as long as she is present;when she leaves, they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns
Avoidant Attachment Pattern
a style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to the mother; after the mother has left, they seem to avoid her when she returns as if they are angered by her behavior
Ambivalent Attachment Pattern
a style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers;they show great distress when the mother leaves, but upon her return they may simultaneously seek close contact but also hit or kick her
Disorganized-Disoriented Attachment Pattern
a style of attachment in which children show inconsistent, often contradictory behavior, such as approaching the mother when she returns but not looking at her; they may be the least securely attached children of all
the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another, begin in infancy
Theory of Psychosocial Development
considers how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others and their own behavior
Trust-Versus-Mistrust Stage(birth to 18 months)
during which infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caretakers
during which, according to Erikson, toddlers develop either independence and autonomy if they are allowed the freedom to explore, or shame and doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.
the pattern of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual
have a positive disposition; their body functions operate regularly and they are adaptable
have negative moods and are slow to adapt to new situations; when confronted with a new situation, they tend to withdraw
are inactive, showing relatively calm reactions to their environment; their moods are generally negative, and they withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly.
Goodness of Fit
the notions that development is dependent on the degree of match between children's temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised
the sense of being male or female
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Lifespan Development
Developmental Psych: Chapter 1
Lifespan Development Chapter 1
Developmental Chapter 1
Other sets by this creator
Micro 201 Lab Practical Clooney
questions for psychology 233
Med Term EXAM 3 Chapters 11-14