165 terms

PHI 220

Midterm and end of term study questions from past quizzes with some additional info.
Immanuel Kant believed that some rules may be broken as long as the results will not justify breaking the rule
Kant based his ethical views on theological considerations
An "ought" statement of the form, "if you want X, then you ought to do Y" is called a
hypothetical imperative
For Kant, moral obligations do not depend on us having particular desires
For Kant, categorical "oughts" have force because we have
The rule or principle a person is following when they do an act is called
the maxim of the act
Kant believed which of the following about lying
it is wrong under all circumstances
Elizabeth Anscombe criticizes the Categorical Imperative on the basis that
it is useless without some guidance on how to form moral rules
What Rachel's calls the "case of the inquiring murderer" is offered to do which of the following
show that categorical imperative is too absolute
Peter Geech believed that genuine conflicts between moral rules never actually occur
Rachel's believes that the basic insight of Kant's ethics is
valid moral reasonings are not binding on all people at all times
O'Neill agrees with those who characterize Kant's ethics as being difficult to understand and excessively demanding
Kant gives more than one different version of his Supreme Principle of Morality
For Kant, the maxim of an act is the principle or policy one follows when deciding on an action
For Kant, what makes an action moral or immoral are the consequences of our action, not what we intend
Kant believed that it is wrong to use someone as a means to our ends
Which of the following makes a false promise wrong, according to Kant
it treats the person who believes the false promise as a thing and not as a person
For Kant, the special moral status of people (i.e. their dignity) is based on their
When I ask a friend to lend me some money, I am treating that person as a means in violation of the categorical imperative
Bentham was a proponent of the retrubitivist justification of punishment
Deceiving someone in order to get them to do what you want would not violate the Categorical Imperative because they will have acted voluntarily and not under coercion
Treating someone as an end in themselves requires that we make our purpose one of their purpose
Kant objects to treating other people as a means
In the example of the plumber on Rachels page 138-139, hiring a plumber would be
morally okay because you are not treating the plumber as simply a means
Jeremy Bentham believed that some punishments were well deserved and therefore good things
Bentham was opposed to the retributivist justification because
he thought retributivism advocated inflicted suffering without any gain
What are the utilitarian justifications of punishment
1. gratification to victims
2. separating criminals from society
3. deterring would-be criminals
4. rehabilitation
Which of the following is a retributivist justification for punishment
the criminal deserves the punishment
Kant advocated retributivism because
even though punishing increased suffering in the world, it was alright because the suffering was borne by those who deserved it
According to Rachel's, the utilitarian view of punishment is the dominant view in America today
Kant objected to the utilitarian justification of punishment, because he thought it
is incompatible with human dignity
Kant thought that punishment should be governed by which of the following principles
1. people should be punished simply because they have committed crimes
2. criminals should be punished in proportion to the crime they have committed
Kant supported the death penalty for which of the following reasons
for murder, the death penalty is the only proportionate treatment
Kant thought that punishing a guilty person showed respect for that person because
it treated them as a rational being who could be responsible for their own behavior
Under Kantian retributivist theory of punishment, which of the following would not deserve to be punished
someone who is insane and therefore not able to control their actions
Judith Thomson beleives that a fetus is not a person until after it is born
Which of the following best describes Judith Thomson's position in her article
she assumes for the sake of argument that a fetus is a person from the moment of conception
The purpose of Judith Thomson's violonist analogy, p. 168-169, is to
show that a right to life does not mean the right to have other people preserve one's life when the cost would be great
Judith Thomson's view is that people have a right to do anything whatever to save their lives
Which of the following best states Judith Thomson's position on right to life
it consists in the right not to be killed unjustly
The purpose of Judith Thomson's "people seeds" story on p. 177 is to do which of the following
undermine the argument that a fetus has a right to its mother's body
Judith Thomson's argument supports abortion in some cases but does not support securing the death of the unborn child
As discussed in Mary Anne Warren's article, John Noonan's view is which of the following
a fetus is a full human being at conception
Mary Anne Warren believes that out moral rights are based on our being genetically human
Mary Anne Warren believes which of the following
the fetus is not a full person at any stage of the pregnancy
The purpose of the story Mary Anne Warren tells of a young woman encountering aliens on p. 198-199 is to do which of the following
undermine the claim that, because a fetus is a potential person, it has a right to life that must be respected
The reason Mary Anne Warren discusses infanticide is that
she needs to defend herself against the objection that her argument in support of abortion also supports infanticide
Which of the following is Don Marquis' view
abortion is usually morally wrong
According to Don Marquis, what makes the killing of another person wrong
it inflicts a great loss on that person
Which of the following does Don Marquis offer as considerations that support his view of what makes killing wrong
1. his theory explains why killing is regarded as one of the worst crimes
2. his theory explains why people who know they are dying believe that dying is a bad thing for them
3. his theory does not entail that active euthanasia is always wrong
Which of the following best describes Don Marquis' view regarding the morality of abortion
he believes that fetuses have valuable futures and so killing them is as wrong as killing an adult human being
As presented in the Rachel's essay, the traditional view of the AMA is that
passive euthanasia is morally permitted but active euthanasia is not morally permitted
The point of the discussion of the Down's Syndrome baby and intestinal blockage on p. 214 is to argue that
treating active euthanasia as morally different from passive euthanasia leads to making life and death decisions on morally irrelevant grounds
According to Rachel's, the basis for the belief that there is an important moral difference between active and passive euthanasia is
the belief that killing someone is morally worse than simply letting them die
The purpose of the discussion of the Smith and Jones cases on p. 215 is to do which of the following
to undermine the claim that there is a morally important difference between killing and letting die
Rachel's asserts that the important similarity between Smith and Jones cases and the euthanasia case is that
the bare difference between killing and letting die does not, in fact, make a moral difference
Which of the following does Rachel's offer as an explanation for why people tend to think that killing is worse than simply letting die
people often hear of terrible cases of killing but rarely hear about cases of letting die
The point of the block quotation on p. 217 is to do which of the following
support the moral distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia
Rachel's responds to the argument on p. 217 by asserting which of the following
he denies letting someone die is the same as doing nothing
Rachel's believes which of the following about legal prohibition of active euthanasia
it cannot be used to support a moral difference between active and passive euthanasia
Sullivan points out that one of the downsides of improved medical technology is that it allows preserving lives that will be painful
Which of the following is part of the "traditional view" of the physician's role, as presented in the Sullivan essay
it is impermissible to terminate intentionally the life of a patient
Sullivan agrees with Rachel's that it makes little difference from a moral point of view to kill by action or malevolent inaction
Which of the following is part of the distinction between extraordinary measures and ordinary measures
the amount of pain the measure will cause
The purpose of the example Sullivan offers regarding foregoing exercise on p. 223 is to do which of the following
to exemplify the difference between foreseeing an occurence and intending to bring it about
Which of the following expresses Sullivan's view regarding the withdrawal of ordinary measures
the refusal to use ordinary measures is morall wrong because that refulsa indicates a desire to bring about the death of the patient
Sullivan asserts that the basis of the traditional view is
the intention of the action or inaction
Peter Singer believes which of the following about the situation in Bengal that he describes
there is nothing unique about it, except it's magnitude
Singer argues which of the following about the way people in wealthy countries react to a situation like the one in Bengal
it was not morally just
The purpose of Singer's story of the drowning child in the pond is which of the following
to support his claim that if we can prevent something bad from happening without sacrificing something of comparable moral worth, then we should do it
Singer beleives which of the following about the moral principle demonstrated by his pond example
following this example would fundamentally change our lives
Singer believes which of the following about our moral obligations regarding distance
we have the same moral obligation to those near us and those far away
Singer believes which of the following about our moral obligations
even when there are other people available to help others, we still have a moral obligation to help
How does Singer respond to the objection that people don't ordinarily make mral judgments the way he is advocating
he argues that the way people in fact make moral judgments has nothing to do with the truth of his moral principle
How does Singer respond to the objection that advocating his very stringent moral standard will lead to a breakdown in moral behavior
he argues that the likelihood of that breakdown occurring is very small
What is Singer's purpose in quoting St. Thomas Aquinas on p. 234-235
to support his claim that his (Singer's) proposed moral principle is not excessively out of line with our Western moral principles
Which of the following does Singer consider as a practical objection to his proposed moral principle
without population control, famine relief merely postpones starvation
Which of the following expresses the "strong version" of Singer's proposed moral principle
we should prevent bad things from happening unless in doing so we would be sacrificing something of comparable moral significance
Singer himself favors the strong over the moderate version
Why does Singer argue that world hunger is an issue about which philosophers are competent to speak
the important facts are not in dispute
The purpose of John Arthur's discussion of donating a kidney or eye on p. 242 is to do which of the following
support the moral distinction between a moral obligation and a morally heroic act
What are 2 examples of a negative right
1. the right to liberty
2. the right to free speech
John Arthur believes which of the following
we are entitled to invoke our rights as a justification for not giving to others
In what ways should a moral code be practical
1. it must not assume people are more unselfish than they are
2. it must not assume people are more objective than they are
3. it must not assume people have perfect knowledge
Which of the following cases would Arthur believe we have a moral obligation to help others in need
getting our clothes dirty in order to save a drowning person
Define hypothetical imperative
an ought statement. If you want X, then you should do Y.
Define categorical imperative
What is the Supreme Principle of Morality
What are 3 examples of treating someone as a means, according to Kant
Give 2 examples that show treating someone as merely a means, in violation of the categorical imperative
Psychological egoism asserts that
people in fact pursue their own interests alone
Psychological egoism is saying the same thing as ethical egoism
What is true regarding the relationship between psychological egoism and ethics, according to Rachel's
if psychological egoism is true then that ethics would be pointless
The story about Raoul Wallenberg is offered to do what
challenge psychological egoism
Rachel's believes that the argument that we "always do what we want to do" is a sound premise - i.e.. its premise is true and the conclusion follows from that premise
Abraham Lincoln believed that people always do what makes them feel good
The ""strategy of reinterpreting motives" is used to do what
support psychological egoism by showing that our motives are really self-interested
Ethical egoism asserts what
people ought to pursue their own interests exclusively
Ethical egoism advocates that people should pursue their long-term interests, not their short-term interests
Ethical egoism does not say that a person should avoid actions that help other people
Ayn Rand was a prominent ethical egoist
According to Ayn Rand, the ethics of altruism denies the value of the individual by promoting self-sacrifice
Rachel's criticizes the argument in support of ethical egoism on p. 72 on the basis that
it asserts that we have only 2 options and ignores a middle ground between them
Thomas Hobbes argued that ethical egoism actually supports a moral principle just like the Golden Rule
Rachel's believes that Kurt Baier's argument that ethical egoism is logically inconsistent is not as convincing as it first seems
What Rachels calls "the principle of equal treatment" is put forth to do what
undermine ethical egoism by showing that there's no basis for giving ourselves special treatment
According to Rachels, treating people in the same way means making sure that everyone end up with the same outcome
The name of Hobbes' most famous work in political and moral philosophy is
Hobbes lived in which century
Hobbes believes that people are, when all is reckoned together, basically equal in strength and intellectual ability
The reason Hobbes notes that with regard to their intellectual ability "every man is contented with his share" is to
support his claim that people are basically equal in intellectual ability
An important consequence of people's relative equality for Hobbe's is that they have an equality of hope that they will be able to attain their ends in competition with others who might desire the same things
Hobbes believed what about human beings
they are capable of only very limited altruism
Hobbes believed which of the following about the state of nature
there is not enough of what we need to go around
Diffidence means
not trusting
For Hobbes, the natural condition of human beings, when they live without a common power to keep them in awe, is a condition of
Hobbes sees the state of nature as
very unpleasant
The point of Hobbes comparison of how people take precautions when going on a journey or locking their doors at night is to
provide evidence in support of his claim that people are at war
For Hobbes there is no justice or injustice when there is no "common power" (i.e. government)
The liberty that each man has to use his own power to preserve his own life is
the right of nature
According to Hobbes, the First Law of Nature is to seek peace and follow it
The social contract conception of morality can be summed up as
morality consists in a set of rules that people agree to on the condition that others agree to them as well
Hobbes believes that, without a "civil power" (i.e. government) to compel people to keep the social contract, then there is no justice or propriety
What does Rachels offer as an advantage of the social contract theory of ethics
it explains why it is rational for us to follow the moral rules
What is an example of a supererogatory action
sacrificing yourself to save a drowning person
Aristotle believed that it is very easy for people to become virtuous
Aristotle uses the example of a patient who listens attentively to his doctor but then doesn't actually do what the doctor ordered him to do. The purpose of this story is
to stress the point that acquiring a virtue requires acting virtuously, not just thoerizing about it
To be virtuous, the virtuous person must not merely do that right/virtuous action but must also do so
with knowledge, from the right choice, and out of the right character
The virtuous behavior between cowardice and rashness is
The virtuous behavior is associated with
the mean between 2 extremes
In his writings on ethics, Aristotle is concerned mainly with theortical ethics
by practicing or exercising the virtuous behavior
According to Aristotle, we develop or acquire a virtue
According to Aristotle, virtues exist in us by nature
For Aristotle, the 2 kinds of virtue are intellectual and
According to Aristotle, the function of a human being is
to live an active life of the element in him
UItilitarianism in a nutshell
the concept that, "the ends justify the means", at least when it comes to pleasure
Socrates definition of morality
how we ought to live and why
minimum conception of morality
a core that every moral theory should accept, at least as a starting point
every moral theory accepts the minimum conception of morality
Most moral theories use a form of minimum conception of morality
Cultural Relativism means
different cultures have different moral codes
Examples of Universal Values
truth telling, caring for children, prohibition against murder
Ethical Subjectivism is
the idea that our moral opinions are based on our feelings and nothing more
Emotivism is different from Simple Subjectivism because
in Emotivism, moral statements are not judgments but merely expressions of attitude while in Simple Subjectivism moral statements are always considered true, even if they are personal opinions
What 2 reasons do Emotivists have for statements
to express ones attitude and to try to influence others behavior
Divine Command Theory in a nutshell
morally right is a matter of being commanded by God and morally wrong is a matter of being forbidden by God
T/F Socrates was Plato's teacher
In Euthyphro, Socrates asks
"is conduct right because the gods command it or do the gods command it because it is right?"
In the history of Christian thought, the dominant theory of ethics is the Theory of Natural Law
Theory of Natural Law in a nutshell
the world has a rational order, with values and purposes built into its very nature/everything has a purpose
What is an example of Theory of Natural Law
the rain falls so plants can grow
As Rachels puts it, right and wrong are not to be understood in terms of God's will; morality is a matter of
reason and conscience
Ethical Egoism in a nutshell
each person OUGHT to pursue his or her own self-interest exclusively
Psychological Egoism in a nutshell
each person DOES IN FACT pursue his or her own self-interest exclusively
Which Egoism makes a claim about morality, the way things should be?
Ethical Egoism
Which Egoism makes a claim about human nature, or the way things are
Psychological Egoism
Social Contract Theory in a nutshell
morality consists in the set of rukes, governing behavior, that rational people will accept, on the condition that others will accept them as well
Social Contract Theory is not based on religion, assumed natural purposes, and assums that people are naturally selfish
What makes an imperative hypothetical?
it tells us what to do provided that we have the relevant desires
What makes an imperative categorical?
it tells us what to do, period! The moral obligations are absolute
What is a categorical imperative
Lying is always wrong
hypothetical "oughts" require what
us to do what is necessary to achieve our goals
categorical "oughts" are possible because we have
Kant expresses the Categorical Imperative as
Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law
Retributivism in a nutshell
if a person does something wrong then they should be punished