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Midterm and end of term study questions from past quizzes with some additional info.

Immanuel Kant believed that some rules may be broken as long as the results will not justify breaking the rule


Kant based his ethical views on theological considerations


An "ought" statement of the form, "if you want X, then you ought to do Y" is called a

hypothetical imperative

For Kant, moral obligations do not depend on us having particular desires


For Kant, categorical "oughts" have force because we have


The rule or principle a person is following when they do an act is called

the maxim of the act

Kant believed which of the following about lying

it is wrong under all circumstances

Elizabeth Anscombe criticizes the Categorical Imperative on the basis that

it is useless without some guidance on how to form moral rules

What Rachel's calls the "case of the inquiring murderer" is offered to do which of the following

show that categorical imperative is too absolute

Peter Geech believed that genuine conflicts between moral rules never actually occur


Rachel's believes that the basic insight of Kant's ethics is

valid moral reasonings are not binding on all people at all times

O'Neill agrees with those who characterize Kant's ethics as being difficult to understand and excessively demanding


Kant gives more than one different version of his Supreme Principle of Morality


For Kant, the maxim of an act is the principle or policy one follows when deciding on an action


For Kant, what makes an action moral or immoral are the consequences of our action, not what we intend


Kant believed that it is wrong to use someone as a means to our ends


Which of the following makes a false promise wrong, according to Kant

it treats the person who believes the false promise as a thing and not as a person

For Kant, the special moral status of people (i.e. their dignity) is based on their


When I ask a friend to lend me some money, I am treating that person as a means in violation of the categorical imperative


Bentham was a proponent of the retrubitivist justification of punishment


Deceiving someone in order to get them to do what you want would not violate the Categorical Imperative because they will have acted voluntarily and not under coercion


Treating someone as an end in themselves requires that we make our purpose one of their purpose


Kant objects to treating other people as a means


In the example of the plumber on Rachels page 138-139, hiring a plumber would be

morally okay because you are not treating the plumber as simply a means

Jeremy Bentham believed that some punishments were well deserved and therefore good things


Bentham was opposed to the retributivist justification because

he thought retributivism advocated inflicted suffering without any gain

What are the utilitarian justifications of punishment

1. gratification to victims
2. separating criminals from society
3. deterring would-be criminals
4. rehabilitation

Which of the following is a retributivist justification for punishment

the criminal deserves the punishment

Kant advocated retributivism because

even though punishing increased suffering in the world, it was alright because the suffering was borne by those who deserved it

According to Rachel's, the utilitarian view of punishment is the dominant view in America today


Kant objected to the utilitarian justification of punishment, because he thought it

is incompatible with human dignity

Kant thought that punishment should be governed by which of the following principles

1. people should be punished simply because they have committed crimes
2. criminals should be punished in proportion to the crime they have committed

Kant supported the death penalty for which of the following reasons

for murder, the death penalty is the only proportionate treatment

Kant thought that punishing a guilty person showed respect for that person because

it treated them as a rational being who could be responsible for their own behavior

Under Kantian retributivist theory of punishment, which of the following would not deserve to be punished

someone who is insane and therefore not able to control their actions

Judith Thomson beleives that a fetus is not a person until after it is born


Which of the following best describes Judith Thomson's position in her article

she assumes for the sake of argument that a fetus is a person from the moment of conception

The purpose of Judith Thomson's violonist analogy, p. 168-169, is to

show that a right to life does not mean the right to have other people preserve one's life when the cost would be great

Judith Thomson's view is that people have a right to do anything whatever to save their lives


Which of the following best states Judith Thomson's position on right to life

it consists in the right not to be killed unjustly

The purpose of Judith Thomson's "people seeds" story on p. 177 is to do which of the following

undermine the argument that a fetus has a right to its mother's body

Judith Thomson's argument supports abortion in some cases but does not support securing the death of the unborn child


As discussed in Mary Anne Warren's article, John Noonan's view is which of the following

a fetus is a full human being at conception

Mary Anne Warren believes that out moral rights are based on our being genetically human


Mary Anne Warren believes which of the following

the fetus is not a full person at any stage of the pregnancy

The purpose of the story Mary Anne Warren tells of a young woman encountering aliens on p. 198-199 is to do which of the following

undermine the claim that, because a fetus is a potential person, it has a right to life that must be respected

The reason Mary Anne Warren discusses infanticide is that

she needs to defend herself against the objection that her argument in support of abortion also supports infanticide

Which of the following is Don Marquis' view

abortion is usually morally wrong

According to Don Marquis, what makes the killing of another person wrong

it inflicts a great loss on that person

Which of the following does Don Marquis offer as considerations that support his view of what makes killing wrong

1. his theory explains why killing is regarded as one of the worst crimes
2. his theory explains why people who know they are dying believe that dying is a bad thing for them
3. his theory does not entail that active euthanasia is always wrong

Which of the following best describes Don Marquis' view regarding the morality of abortion

he believes that fetuses have valuable futures and so killing them is as wrong as killing an adult human being

As presented in the Rachel's essay, the traditional view of the AMA is that

passive euthanasia is morally permitted but active euthanasia is not morally permitted

The point of the discussion of the Down's Syndrome baby and intestinal blockage on p. 214 is to argue that

treating active euthanasia as morally different from passive euthanasia leads to making life and death decisions on morally irrelevant grounds

According to Rachel's, the basis for the belief that there is an important moral difference between active and passive euthanasia is

the belief that killing someone is morally worse than simply letting them die

The purpose of the discussion of the Smith and Jones cases on p. 215 is to do which of the following

to undermine the claim that there is a morally important difference between killing and letting die

Rachel's asserts that the important similarity between Smith and Jones cases and the euthanasia case is that

the bare difference between killing and letting die does not, in fact, make a moral difference

Which of the following does Rachel's offer as an explanation for why people tend to think that killing is worse than simply letting die

people often hear of terrible cases of killing but rarely hear about cases of letting die

The point of the block quotation on p. 217 is to do which of the following

support the moral distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia

Rachel's responds to the argument on p. 217 by asserting which of the following

he denies letting someone die is the same as doing nothing

Rachel's believes which of the following about legal prohibition of active euthanasia

it cannot be used to support a moral difference between active and passive euthanasia

Sullivan points out that one of the downsides of improved medical technology is that it allows preserving lives that will be painful


Which of the following is part of the "traditional view" of the physician's role, as presented in the Sullivan essay

it is impermissible to terminate intentionally the life of a patient

Sullivan agrees with Rachel's that it makes little difference from a moral point of view to kill by action or malevolent inaction


Which of the following is part of the distinction between extraordinary measures and ordinary measures

the amount of pain the measure will cause

The purpose of the example Sullivan offers regarding foregoing exercise on p. 223 is to do which of the following

to exemplify the difference between foreseeing an occurence and intending to bring it about

Which of the following expresses Sullivan's view regarding the withdrawal of ordinary measures

the refusal to use ordinary measures is morall wrong because that refulsa indicates a desire to bring about the death of the patient

Sullivan asserts that the basis of the traditional view is

the intention of the action or inaction

Peter Singer believes which of the following about the situation in Bengal that he describes

there is nothing unique about it, except it's magnitude

Singer argues which of the following about the way people in wealthy countries react to a situation like the one in Bengal

it was not morally just

The purpose of Singer's story of the drowning child in the pond is which of the following

to support his claim that if we can prevent something bad from happening without sacrificing something of comparable moral worth, then we should do it

Singer beleives which of the following about the moral principle demonstrated by his pond example

following this example would fundamentally change our lives

Singer believes which of the following about our moral obligations regarding distance

we have the same moral obligation to those near us and those far away

Singer believes which of the following about our moral obligations

even when there are other people available to help others, we still have a moral obligation to help

How does Singer respond to the objection that people don't ordinarily make mral judgments the way he is advocating

he argues that the way people in fact make moral judgments has nothing to do with the truth of his moral principle

How does Singer respond to the objection that advocating his very stringent moral standard will lead to a breakdown in moral behavior

he argues that the likelihood of that breakdown occurring is very small

What is Singer's purpose in quoting St. Thomas Aquinas on p. 234-235

to support his claim that his (Singer's) proposed moral principle is not excessively out of line with our Western moral principles

Which of the following does Singer consider as a practical objection to his proposed moral principle

without population control, famine relief merely postpones starvation

Which of the following expresses the "strong version" of Singer's proposed moral principle

we should prevent bad things from happening unless in doing so we would be sacrificing something of comparable moral significance

Singer himself favors the strong over the moderate version


Why does Singer argue that world hunger is an issue about which philosophers are competent to speak

the important facts are not in dispute

The purpose of John Arthur's discussion of donating a kidney or eye on p. 242 is to do which of the following

support the moral distinction between a moral obligation and a morally heroic act

What are 2 examples of a negative right

1. the right to liberty
2. the right to free speech

John Arthur believes which of the following

we are entitled to invoke our rights as a justification for not giving to others

In what ways should a moral code be practical

1. it must not assume people are more unselfish than they are
2. it must not assume people are more objective than they are
3. it must not assume people have perfect knowledge

Which of the following cases would Arthur believe we have a moral obligation to help others in need

getting our clothes dirty in order to save a drowning person

Define hypothetical imperative

an ought statement. If you want X, then you should do Y.

Define categorical imperative


What is the Supreme Principle of Morality


What are 3 examples of treating someone as a means, according to Kant


Give 2 examples that show treating someone as merely a means, in violation of the categorical imperative


Psychological egoism asserts that

people in fact pursue their own interests alone

Psychological egoism is saying the same thing as ethical egoism


What is true regarding the relationship between psychological egoism and ethics, according to Rachel's

if psychological egoism is true then that ethics would be pointless

The story about Raoul Wallenberg is offered to do what

challenge psychological egoism

Rachel's believes that the argument that we "always do what we want to do" is a sound premise - i.e.. its premise is true and the conclusion follows from that premise


Abraham Lincoln believed that people always do what makes them feel good


The ""strategy of reinterpreting motives" is used to do what

support psychological egoism by showing that our motives are really self-interested

Ethical egoism asserts what

people ought to pursue their own interests exclusively

Ethical egoism advocates that people should pursue their long-term interests, not their short-term interests


Ethical egoism does not say that a person should avoid actions that help other people


Ayn Rand was a prominent ethical egoist


According to Ayn Rand, the ethics of altruism denies the value of the individual by promoting self-sacrifice


Rachel's criticizes the argument in support of ethical egoism on p. 72 on the basis that

it asserts that we have only 2 options and ignores a middle ground between them

Thomas Hobbes argued that ethical egoism actually supports a moral principle just like the Golden Rule


Rachel's believes that Kurt Baier's argument that ethical egoism is logically inconsistent is not as convincing as it first seems


What Rachels calls "the principle of equal treatment" is put forth to do what

undermine ethical egoism by showing that there's no basis for giving ourselves special treatment

According to Rachels, treating people in the same way means making sure that everyone end up with the same outcome


The name of Hobbes' most famous work in political and moral philosophy is


Hobbes lived in which century


Hobbes believes that people are, when all is reckoned together, basically equal in strength and intellectual ability


The reason Hobbes notes that with regard to their intellectual ability "every man is contented with his share" is to

support his claim that people are basically equal in intellectual ability

An important consequence of people's relative equality for Hobbe's is that they have an equality of hope that they will be able to attain their ends in competition with others who might desire the same things


Hobbes believed what about human beings

they are capable of only very limited altruism

Hobbes believed which of the following about the state of nature

there is not enough of what we need to go around

Diffidence means

not trusting

For Hobbes, the natural condition of human beings, when they live without a common power to keep them in awe, is a condition of


Hobbes sees the state of nature as

very unpleasant

The point of Hobbes comparison of how people take precautions when going on a journey or locking their doors at night is to

provide evidence in support of his claim that people are at war

For Hobbes there is no justice or injustice when there is no "common power" (i.e. government)


The liberty that each man has to use his own power to preserve his own life is

the right of nature

According to Hobbes, the First Law of Nature is to seek peace and follow it


The social contract conception of morality can be summed up as

morality consists in a set of rules that people agree to on the condition that others agree to them as well

Hobbes believes that, without a "civil power" (i.e. government) to compel people to keep the social contract, then there is no justice or propriety


What does Rachels offer as an advantage of the social contract theory of ethics

it explains why it is rational for us to follow the moral rules

What is an example of a supererogatory action

sacrificing yourself to save a drowning person

Aristotle believed that it is very easy for people to become virtuous


Aristotle uses the example of a patient who listens attentively to his doctor but then doesn't actually do what the doctor ordered him to do. The purpose of this story is

to stress the point that acquiring a virtue requires acting virtuously, not just thoerizing about it

To be virtuous, the virtuous person must not merely do that right/virtuous action but must also do so

with knowledge, from the right choice, and out of the right character

The virtuous behavior between cowardice and rashness is


The virtuous behavior is associated with

the mean between 2 extremes

In his writings on ethics, Aristotle is concerned mainly with theortical ethics

by practicing or exercising the virtuous behavior

According to Aristotle, we develop or acquire a virtue


According to Aristotle, virtues exist in us by nature


For Aristotle, the 2 kinds of virtue are intellectual and


According to Aristotle, the function of a human being is

to live an active life of the element in him

UItilitarianism in a nutshell

the concept that, "the ends justify the means", at least when it comes to pleasure

Socrates definition of morality

how we ought to live and why

minimum conception of morality

a core that every moral theory should accept, at least as a starting point

every moral theory accepts the minimum conception of morality


Most moral theories use a form of minimum conception of morality


Cultural Relativism means

different cultures have different moral codes

Examples of Universal Values

truth telling, caring for children, prohibition against murder

Ethical Subjectivism is

the idea that our moral opinions are based on our feelings and nothing more

Emotivism is different from Simple Subjectivism because

in Emotivism, moral statements are not judgments but merely expressions of attitude while in Simple Subjectivism moral statements are always considered true, even if they are personal opinions

What 2 reasons do Emotivists have for statements

to express ones attitude and to try to influence others behavior

Divine Command Theory in a nutshell

morally right is a matter of being commanded by God and morally wrong is a matter of being forbidden by God

T/F Socrates was Plato's teacher


In Euthyphro, Socrates asks

"is conduct right because the gods command it or do the gods command it because it is right?"

In the history of Christian thought, the dominant theory of ethics is the Theory of Natural Law


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