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Psych of Eating Midterm Review
Terms in this set (88)
Type of food and drink habitually consumed (ie. intake of nutrients & the food that provides these nutrients)
Dietary Reference Intake
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
describes multiple lists of values presenting nutrition recommendations for total energy, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, & water
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Describes how much of a nutrient you should aim to consume every day.
Calculated from EAR but set well above so that these nutrient recommendations are sufficient for 97 to 98% of the population.
Adequate Intake (AI)
Describes how much of a nutrient you should aim to consume every day. A value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
Indicate the potential for toxicity
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
Percent of daily caloric intake to provide adequate energy and nutrients. Based on energy yielding nutrients: carbohydrates (45 to 65%), fats (20 to 35%), and protein (10 to 35%)
Estimated Average Requirement
Estimated Average Requirement
Average nutrient requirements (only sufficient for ~50% of the population).
Used in policy making,
DRIs that provide nutrient intake goals
1. RDA: Average daily nutrient needs for most (97-98%) healthy people; derived from EAR.
2. AI: Nutrient intake goals for individuals used if data is not yet sufficient to determine RDA.
Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet
adequacy, balance, calorie control, moderation, variety
Provide enough essential nutrients, fibre, and energy to maintain health and body weight
Proportional amount and type of foods
Balance energy intake (food) and energy expenditure (activity); maintain appropriate body weight and body fat
No excess fat, salt, sugar, unwanted constituents (toxins, contaminants); cannot be total abstinence, but limits are necessary.
Wide selection daily ensures adequacy and adds interest
Canada's Food Guide Key Messages
1. Drink water regularly. Aim for a fluid intake: 3 L for men and 2.2 L for women
2. Emphasize nutrient-rich plant foods.
3. Balance healthy eating with an active lifestyle. 2.5 hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week for adults and 60 minutes per day for youth.
4. Limit certain foods. (High in fat/sugar/salt, highly processed, alcohol < 2 drinks/day, caffeine < 400 mg/day)
5. Enjoy a variety of foods.
Brazil's 10 Steps to a Healthy Diet
1. Make natural or minimally processed foods the basis of your diet.
2. Use oils, fats, salts, and sugars in small amounts when seasoning and cooking.
3. Limit consumption of processed foods.
4. Avoid consumption of ultra-processed foods.
5. Eat regularly and carefully in appropriate environments, and whenever possible, eat in company.
6. Shop in places that offer a variety of natural or minimally processed foods.
7. Develop, exercise, share cooking skills.
8. Plan your time to make food and eating important in life.
9. Out of home, prefer places that serve freshly made meals.
10. Be wary of food ads and marketing.
Amount eaten by each individual. Could be bigger or smaller; affected by age, gender, activity level, appetite, where and when consumed.
Calories needed to supply required nutrients
Discretionary Calorie Allowance
Discretionary Calorie Allowance (DCA)
Additional food that may or may not be calorie- or nutrient-dense. (ie. extra servings of nutrient dense foods, added fats/sugars, alcohol intake)
Nutrition Facts Table
Nutrition Facts Table (NFT)
Standardized label on all products.
Displays food serving size that it is referring to and calories per serving.
Must list macronutrients, saturated/trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, fibre, sugar, potassium, calcium, iron
% Daily Value (%DV)
5% or less is low
15% or more is high
food labels must include
Name of product, name and info of manufacturer, amount of contents, nutrition facts table, ingredient list
food labels may include
nutrient content descriptors, disease reduction claims, nutrient function claims
Nutrient content descriptor
Health Canada approved language about a product's nutrient value (ie. "fat free")
Disease reduction claim
Health Canada approved statements linking some foods to certain diseases (ie. "oats may help lower cholesterol")
Nutrient function claim
Health Canada approved statements about the roles of energy or nutrients in the maintenance of good health or for normal growth and development (ie. "protein helps build and repair muscle tissue")
less than 5 calories
Low in calories
40 calories or less
less than 0.5 grams of fat
Low in fat
3 grams or less of fat per serving
Source of fibre
2g or more
High source of fibre
4g or more
Very high source of fibre
6g or more
Sodium free/salt free
less than 5 mg
Low in sodium/salt
less than 140mg
Physiological mechanisms that control food intake
Tendency to maintain relatively stable internal conditions for optimal physiological functioning
Short-term feedback signal
Central Control + Peripheral Control
Nutrient intake in a single meal
Long-term feedback signal
Nutrient levels over extended periods
Feeling of fullness/satisfaction achieved during food consumption, which promotes termination of eating during a meal
Feeling of satisfaction/lack of appetite or hunger for a period following a meal, which prevents the initiation of the next meal
Areas of the Brain
Functional unit of brain.
Communicate with each other to form pathways.
Pathways transmit info & results in behaviour.
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
Info flow in neurons
Dendrites > Cell Body > Axon
Hunger, fullness, and search for food
Cerebral Cortex (Prefrontal Cortex)
Motivational components of eating
Cerebral Cortex (Somatosensory Cortex)
Cerebral Cortex (Parietal Lobe)
3 Main Areas for Eating Behaviour
Prefrontal Cortex, Hypothalamus, Brainstem
hormone released from beta cells of pancreas; works in concert with glucagon to regulate blood glucose levels
Increasing Fat Stores
Hormone released from adipose tissue itself
Increasing Fat Stores
3 Main Nuclei of Hypothalamus in Eating Behaviour
Paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus
Hunger and initiation of eating
Motivation and search for food
Termination of eating
Chemicals that promote eating
Chemicals that stop eating
Hormones in Arcuate Nucleus
Orexigenic: NPY, AgRP
Anorexigenic: CART, POMC/alpha-MSH, GLU
Hormone released primarily from stomach in absence of a meal.
Activates NPH/AgRP hormones in arcuate nucleus.
Arcuate Nucleus Function
Receptors for leptin and insulin.
Detects metabolites from food.
Responds to hormones released after a meal from GI tract.
Inhibits orexogenic messages and simulates anorexigenic messages
Lateral Hypothalamus Function
Releases hypocretin (Orexin A and Orexin B) and MCH in response to NPY/AgRP from arcuate nucleus.
Lead to food searching and intake behaviour by activating motivational circuitry
Paraventricular Nucleus Function
Combines signals from lateral hypothalamus (Orexin A &B, MCH) and arcuate nucleus (NPY/AgRP & CART/alpha-MSH/GLU).
Ensures meal is long enough but not too long.
CRF = main signal for cessation of eating.
Breaking down food into constituent macro- and micro-nutrients
1. Chewing breaks up food & mixes it with saliva.
2. Saliva lubricates food and begins its chemical digestion.
3. Swallowing moves food into the stomach.
4. Acidic digestive juices in the stomach break down the food into chyme.
5. Stomach gradually empties through pyloric sphincter into duodenum.
6. Digestive enzymes from gallbladder and pancreas are released into the duodenum.
7. Absorption primarily in jejunum; remainder in ileum.
8. Water and salts re-absorbed in large intestine (colon). Waste is ejected from anus.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A value based an an individual's weight and height that may be used as one indicator of overall health
Hormone secreted primarily from first segment of the small intestine (duodenum) with inhibitory effects on eating.
Release is increased in response to fats and proteins.
Slows gastric emptying when food is in the stomach leading to increased gastric distension.
Hormone secreted primarily from the second part of the small intestine (jejunum) with inhibitory effects on eating.
Release increases in response to simple sugars.
Targets the stomach (slow emptying = increased satiety).
Targets the pancreas (greater insulin release = lower food intake).
Hormone secreted primarily from the final segment of the small intestine (ileum) with inhibitory effects on eating.
Fats, proteins, and dietary fibre increase its release.
Inhibits NPY neurons in arcuate nucleus.
pleasure brought by taste experience; also goes beyond sensory experience. Mediated by cognitive and physiological responses to food.
Drive/motivation to consume food; more than conscious desire > unconscious, physiological desire for something
Ventral Tegmental Area, Prefrontal Cortex, Nucleus Accumbens (liking), Ventral Pallidum (liking), Central Amygdala, Lateral Hypothalamus
Actual amount of pleasure produced by eating a food; opioid and endocannibinod release
unconscious desire (craving/anticipated amount if pleasure associated with an action); dopamine release, mesocorticolimbic pathway
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