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Less successful readers exemplify few of the characteristics of capable readers or behave differently when they are reading and writing. Perhaps the most remarkable dif-ference is that more capable readers view reading as a process of comprehending or cre-ating meaning, whereas less capable readers focus on decoding. In writing, less capable writers make cosmetic changes when they revise, rather than changes to communicate meaning more effectively. These important differences indicate that capable students focus on comprehension and the strategies readers and writers use to understand what they read and to make sure that what they write will be comprehensible to others. Another important difference between capable and less capable readers and writers is that those who are less successful aren't strategic. They are naive. They seem reluctant to use unfamiliar strategies or those that require much effort. They don't seem to be motivated or to expect that they'll be successful. Less capable readers and writers don't understand or use all stages of the reading and writing processes effec-tively. They don't monitor their reading and writing ( Keene & Zimmermann, 2007). Or, if they do use strategies, they remain dependent on primitive ones. For example, as they read, less successful readers seldom look ahead or back into the text to clarify misunderstandings or make plans. Or, when they come to an unfamiliar word, they often stop reading, unsure of what to do. They may try to sound out an unfamiliar word, but if that's unsuccessful, they give up. In contrast, capable readers know a vari-ety of strategies, and if one strategy isn't successful, they try another. Less capable writers move through the writing process in a lockstep, linear approach. They use a limited number of strategies, most often a " knowledge- telling" strategy in which they write everything they know about a topic with little thought to choosing infor-mation to meet the needs of their readers or to organizing the information to put related ideas together ( Faigley et al., 1985). In contrast, capable writers understand the recursive nature of the writing process and turn to classmates for feedback about how well they're communicating. They are more responsive to the needs of the audience that will read their writing, and they work to organize their writing in a cohesive manner.