Upgrade to remove ads
Soils Test 1
Terms in this set (161)
What plant growth stage is when nutrient demands are highest?
What disastrous period of the US history from 1930-1940 that resulted in the advent of soil conservation?
The Dust Bowl
Do plants need soil to grow?
All factors that affect plant growth can be categorized as?
Genetic or Environmental
Getting larger by a combination of cell division and expansion?
A plants nutritional needs change based on ?
-Higher-yielding plants require more nutrients.
-Different life stages.
-Special nutrient needs.
A good land manager will make sure all growth and nutrient requirements are by providing a good?
Progressive growth of a plant also requires cell ---- ?
What does the environment supply?
- support system
- 17 elements
- Biological ( pollinators, microbes)
What does the soil supply?
-aeration and gas exchange
-nutrients and absorption
- temp buffer
What are the agricultural land uses?
The potential usuage of land for plants is heavily influenced by the?
Land use classification of soil
Land classification is based on soil ---?
Describing a soil in a survey answers the question?
What is sustainable for
What are soil surveys used for?
used to plan land use and management zones.
Public Land Survey System
-US method of dividing and describing land.
a square 6 miles on each side, divided into 36 sects.
A square normally 1 mile on a side. 640 acres.
Block (quarter, quarter)
43,560 square feet
What percentage of land is used as agricultural land?
What percentage of land is forrest?
what is the US and global population?
Soil Survey Descriptions are?
Physical and Chemical (characteristics)
Soil Survey and Classification are ?
Mapping is according to ?
Description of a Pedon
tests for physical and chemical properties
How many soil orders are in the US?
How is mapping done?
Mapping is done by drawing lines or aerial photographs. Many soil probes are done to find the exact boundaries of each soil type.
1st order soil survey. What is the scale and used for?
1 : 12,000
Its most common, used for planning commercial developments, irrigation, and drainage systems.
What is the scale of the 2nd order scale?
1 : 20,000
used for County soil surveys
(intensive land use)
How many land capability classes are there?
The ______ the number, the more_____ to growing and fewer agronomic uses.
The higher the number, the more limitaions
What are some land limitations?
Slopes, erosion, shallow soil, drainage, fertility, structure, alkali and saline.
What land use class is best for agronomic use and has the fewest liminations?
Class I ( 2%)
What soils have moderate limitations that reduce the choice of plants or that require moderate conservation practices?
Class II ( 21%)
This class of soils are common in the South East, these are mainly sandy soils with moderate slope and prone to dryness.
What class of soil has severe limitations that reduce the choice of plants, or that require very careful management or both. Shouldent be farmed for longterm
Class IV (4)
What class of soil is unsuitable, but are mainly used for wildlife, pasture, range land, and forests?
Class V- five
Soil class VI - VIII are difficult to maintain _____?
Stilled used for range, pasture, woodland, recreation.
GPS (global positioning system) can be used for?
What are the three steps of soil surveys?
Descriptions, Classifications, and mapping
What are the five soil forming factors?
climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time
What is the study of soil formation?
What scientist made the early classification system of soils and name horizons?
Who developed the five factors of soil formation?
What is the acronym for the 5 factors soil formation?
Almost all soil comes from _____ , what horizon?
It is also the origin and Parent Material.
All soils comes from Rock, R Horizon.
This is created by the cooling and solidification of molten materials. Composes mostly of earths crust.
This is a type of Igneous rock, it weathers to mostly light, acidic parent materials, and course materials.
made up of Quartz and Basalt
This type of rock forms from loose materials that are deposited and then slowly cemented.
75% of earths surface.
What are the two examples of Sedimentary Rock?
sandstone and limestone
This type of rock is formed from another rock exposed to heat and pressure.
What are some examples of Metamorphic rock?
How is the parent material of soil formed?
By rock/origin and weathering.
What is it called when sand that is moved around and deposited by wind to form soil?
Trends in temperature and precipitation over that influences weathering is called?
What tends to accelerate weathering processes?
warmer and wetter areas
What does climate influence?
The speed of soil formation
vegetation and biological activity
What are the two main types of weathering?
mechanical and chemical
What are the physical types of weathering?
cold, heat, water, wind, abrasion
mechanical processes changes particle _____?
What are the 6 types of chemical weathering?
What is called the separation of compound?
Water Breakdown of soil ?
Water joins mineral, becomes softer and easier to weather?
Weathering that large organic molecules that surround a metallic ion
The gaining of electrons is called?
The loss of electrons is called?
(Oxidation = Lose. Reduction = Gain)
oxidation is losing, reduction is gaining
What is the horizon of base soil?
Type of parent material that forms in place?
Type of parent material that is carried by gravity?
Parent material that is transported by glacier?
Parent material that is washed away from melted ice, well sorted distribution?
Parent material that makes up lake beds, usually smallest particles?
Parent Material by receding ocean?
Parent material carries by moving fresh water
Parent material that is river specific
Parent material that is sand size and carries by wind?
Parent material that is silt size and carries by wind?
Parent material that is by volcanos
Parent Material by organic materials
The difference between high and low areas of landscape?
Due to _____ higher areas drain faster but the water collects in lower areas
Erosion and drainage occurs faster in sleeper areas due to?
vegetation, animals, and people are considered
Bacteria, Fungi, and Insects are considers what and are most of the world's species
One inch of soil takes how long to form?
one inch of soil can take less than what to disturb?
What is a 2D vertical section of soil exposing all horizons to the bedrock?
What are the 4 mechanisms of horizons?
also called 4 processes of soil formation
A cement layer found in soil
How many master horizons are there?
What horizon is the organic layer
What horizon is the surface mineral layer?
That horizons are the eluviated and illuviated zones?
E and B horizon
What horizon consist of parent material?
What horizon is bedrock?
A type of soil that is acidic O and A horizons. High base saturation. Deciduous Forrest and Savannahs and temperate climates
Type of soil that is made up of volcanic material?
Type of soil that is in arid climates, limits formation, alkaline and salted horizons. Not very good for ag. unless irrigation is supplied
This soil is the youngest and least weathered.
Type of soil that is permafrost, has a lot of carbon, found in the tundra and cold deserts.
Type of soil from decaying matter. Lots of carbon. Lack of Oxygen.
Young but older than Entisol. Start of B horizon. Found in humid and subhumid regions.
Type of soil that is rich A horizon. A majority of US crops are grown on rich soul in the midwest.
Type of soil that is highly weathered. Tropical, sub tropical climates. oldest soil.
Type of soil that lacks A horizon. forms under cool, moist, de forests.
Type of soil that are found in warm, humid climate. The southeast soil. low bases.
Type of soil that shrinks, and swell clays and self invert. Good for Agriculture.
Refers to the relative quantity of each of three inorganic particle sizes
Soil texture of 2.0 - 0.05 mm
Soil Texture of 0.05 - 0.002 mm
Soil Texture of < 0,002 mm
Larger particle size and lest reactivity
Smaller Particle size and More reactivity
Smallest particle size and most reactivity
Type of pore that is : > 0.06 mm, larger pores, influence water movement
Type of pore: < 0.06 mm, smaller pores, hold water, prevents aeration.
What texture has the fewest number of pores but biggest pore size?
What texture has more pores but smaller pore size than sand?
What texture has the most number of pores but smallest pore size?
What it gritty, dosent hold water, not sticky to water or itself?
What is silky or powdery to the touch. No stickyness but holds plant and water.
What is sticky to itself and water. moves, leaches, and accumulates?
Typical Soil components occur at percentages of?
The broadest classification for US soil taxonomy is
What soil particle is the smallest?
What are two ways soils can be tested for texture?
Ribboning and Hydrometer
In general , soil air contains ________ compared to above ground gas concentrations.
Less O2, and More CO2 , same N2
Black and Brown soil is mostly?
organic matter and high moisture
Red/ yellow soil is
oxidized iron and aluminum
reduced iron and moisture
white soil color
salt, lime or leached zones
What is soil mottling and indicator of?
Patchy, mixed aeration ( redoximorphic features)
What is the tendency to hold soils together
This term describes a parent material carried by glacier
What are the benefits of having structure?
- better water maintenance
- less erosion
-improve root enviroment
A structure that is roughly spherical, usually 1-10 mm in diameter. most common in topsoil
Structure that is cubed shaped, common in B horizons, 5-50 mm, they formed by repeated expansion and contraction of clay minerals.
Structure that is larger, vertically elongated blocks, and are bounded by flat or slightly rounded vertical faces. Shape indicates Sodium.
Structure that is flat peds that lie horizontally in the soil. A result of compaction or high silt, common in A and E horizon.
This type of structure is found with high shrink such clays. wet dry conditions cause sliding covered in slickenslies.
Structure that is a type of platy, thick in the middle, thin on the edge.
A measure of soil weight, soil must be dried to remove water weight, volume determined by scoop or probe volume.
bulk density formula
Weight/ Volume of dry soil.
At what temperature evaporates water from soil?
105 Degree C
What is 0.8 - 1.2 , usually topsoil, lots of pore space?
Low Bulk Density
What is 1.6 or higher, meaning its compacted?
High Bulk Density
Bulk density is more on and indicator of?
Higher BD means?
Less pore space
Lower BD means?
More pore space
How do we improve sandy soil?
Add organic material that dosent decompose
<0.002 mm, small and sign SA/Vol., Sticky, has a negative charge, holds water, less drainage, can be organic or inorganic.
oxides of iron and aluminum, often present in mature soils and emit reds/yellows in color. positive charges
from ash and soda glass, found in andisols
Organic Collides ( Humus)
Nonliving material in soil, majority of ag.
<0.002, found majority in ag. results from chemical reactions.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Geology 101 chapter 6
Soil Science Exam 1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Plant Protection Exam 1 (part 1)
Ag Finance Mang ch.1 and 2
Dairy exam 3 repro health
Dairy exam 3 mastitis