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ulysses s grant

an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

horatio seymour

Opposed Grant in the election of 1868

jim fisk

Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S. gold market nearly succeeded in 1869

thomas nast

United States political cartoonist (1840-1902)

horace greenley

founded new york tribune

cheap money

credit available at low rates of interest

hard money

Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.

ohio idea

This called for a redemption of federal war bonds in greenbacks

the bloody shirt

The term for reviving the gory memories of the civil war

jay cooke

United States financier who marketed Union bonds to finance the Civil War

roscoe conkling

a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.

james g blaine

served as secretary of state in 2 administrations and wanted america to expand influence in latin america

rutherford b hayes

19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877

samuel tilden

Democratic nominee for president in 1876, loses narrowly

james a garfield

the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.


beginning again

resumption act

It pledged the withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and the redemption of all paper money in gold

crime of 73

u.s. ended minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard

chester a arthur

Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.

winfield s hancock

a Civil War general who appealed to the South due to his fair treatment of it during Reconstruction and a veteran who had been wounded at Gettysburg, and thus appealed to veterans. he was chosen by the democrats

charles guiteau

Disappointed job-seeker who assassinated James Garfield

grover cleavland

24th president; only president to serve non-consecutive terms

benjamin harrison

23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars

liberal republicans

Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.

gilded age

1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

half breed

this was a republican political machine, headed by James G. Blane c1869. They pushed republican ideals and were almost a separate group that existed within the party.

tweed ring

the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing.

credit mobilier

name of company involved in stealing of railroad money

leland sanford

One of the "Big Four", governor of California, Senator, and founder of a university

collis p huntington

involved in both railroads and chipping - founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the US

james j hill

driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"

cornelius vanderbilt

United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)

land grant

a grant of public land (as to a railway or college)

stock watering

Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.


any communal combination of funds


a refund of some fraction of the amount paid

union pacific railroad

A railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH

central pacific railroad

A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH

wabash case

1886 supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce

jane addams

the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes

florence kelley

reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers

mary baker eddy

founder of Christian Science in 1866 (1821-1910)

charles darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)


a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)


an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties

new immagration

came out of south and eastern europe

hull house

Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 18889

sitting bull

American Indian medicine man, chief, and political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre during the Sioux War

george a custer

u.s general commanded his army at battle of little big horn. he was killed

dawes severalty act

Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

long drive

Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.


a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day


(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity

billion dollar congress

gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

pension act

Bill showering Civ War vets w/ pensions for those who served for 90days & were unable to do manual labor; helped secure need for high tariff & emptied out surplus

sherman silver purchase act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

mckinley tariff

A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.

omaha platform

the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform

greenback labor party

agriculture backed party which ran James B. Weaver in the presidential election of 1880


elongate European surface-dwelling predacious fishes with long toothed jaws

alexander graham bell

United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)

thomas edison

Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations

andrew carnegie

United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)

john d rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

verticle integration

The process of bringing all processes in making manufactured products to reduce cost.

horizontal integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level


the trait of trusting

interlocking directorate

Practice where a single person is part of the boards of multiple companies

united states steel

was the first billion-dollar super corporation and was created by Carnegie.

gospel of wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

william james

United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910)

henry george

He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.


(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate


voluntary promotion of human welfare

morrill act

of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.


Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)

helen hunt jackson

United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)

patrons of husbandry

organized agrarian group also known as the grange

granger laws

Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional

ghost dance

a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead

free silver

Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan

homestead strike

Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers

jim crow laws

Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

depression of 1893

Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.

pullman strike

in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing

wilson gorman tariff

1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program

pendleton act

It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism


A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.

john p altgeld

Governor of IL
pardoned 3 of the anarchists arrested without ties to Haymarket Square
loses reelection, despite praise for freeing the innocent

capital goods

buildings, machinery, tools, and other goods that provide productive services over a period of time.


a political system governed by the wealthy people


(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity

yellow dog contact

states that one of the condtions of employment is that the worker agrees not to join a union

national labor union

organized in 1866 have about 600,000 members agitated for arbitration of disputes and an 8 hour workday

bessemer process

an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities

horatio alger

United States author of inspirational adventure stories for boys

mark twain

United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)


the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

yellow journalism

sensationalist journalism

temperance union

fought alcoholism on the state level through blue laws and on the national level with the 18th Amendment which prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor.

oliver h kelley

considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.

nez perce

the Shahaptian language spoken by the Nez Perce people


the language of the Apache people

william mckinley

25th President of the United States

sixteen to one

Ratio of silver to gold that Bryan rested his presidential platform on

cross of gold speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

american protective association

An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration

gold standard act

Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.

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