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109 terms

unit 7

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ulysses s grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
horatio seymour
Opposed Grant in the election of 1868
jim fisk
Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S. gold market nearly succeeded in 1869
thomas nast
United States political cartoonist (1840-1902)
horace greenley
founded new york tribune
cheap money
credit available at low rates of interest
hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
ohio idea
This called for a redemption of federal war bonds in greenbacks
the bloody shirt
The term for reviving the gory memories of the civil war
jay cooke
United States financier who marketed Union bonds to finance the Civil War
roscoe conkling
a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.
james g blaine
served as secretary of state in 2 administrations and wanted america to expand influence in latin america
rutherford b hayes
19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877
samuel tilden
Democratic nominee for president in 1876, loses narrowly
james a garfield
the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.
resumption
beginning again
resumption act
It pledged the withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and the redemption of all paper money in gold
crime of 73
u.s. ended minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard
chester a arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
winfield s hancock
a Civil War general who appealed to the South due to his fair treatment of it during Reconstruction and a veteran who had been wounded at Gettysburg, and thus appealed to veterans. he was chosen by the democrats
charles guiteau
Disappointed job-seeker who assassinated James Garfield
grover cleavland
24th president; only president to serve non-consecutive terms
benjamin harrison
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
liberal republicans
Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
gilded age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
half breed
this was a republican political machine, headed by James G. Blane c1869. They pushed republican ideals and were almost a separate group that existed within the party.
tweed ring
the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing.
credit mobilier
name of company involved in stealing of railroad money
leland sanford
One of the "Big Four", governor of California, Senator, and founder of a university
collis p huntington
involved in both railroads and chipping - founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the US
james j hill
driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"
cornelius vanderbilt
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
land grant
a grant of public land (as to a railway or college)
stock watering
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
pool
any communal combination of funds
rebate
a refund of some fraction of the amount paid
union pacific railroad
A railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
central pacific railroad
A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
wabash case
1886 supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
jane addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
florence kelley
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
mary baker eddy
founder of Christian Science in 1866 (1821-1910)
charles darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
new immagration
came out of south and eastern europe
hull house
Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 18889
sitting bull
American Indian medicine man, chief, and political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre during the Sioux War
george a custer
u.s general commanded his army at battle of little big horn. he was killed
dawes severalty act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
long drive
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
populists
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
injunction
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
billion dollar congress
gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
pension act
Bill showering Civ War vets w/ pensions for those who served for 90days & were unable to do manual labor; helped secure need for high tariff & emptied out surplus
sherman silver purchase act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
mckinley tariff
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
omaha platform
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
greenback labor party
agriculture backed party which ran James B. Weaver in the presidential election of 1880
GAR
elongate European surface-dwelling predacious fishes with long toothed jaws
alexander graham bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
thomas edison
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
andrew carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
john d rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
verticle integration
The process of bringing all processes in making manufactured products to reduce cost.
horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
trust
the trait of trusting
interlocking directorate
Practice where a single person is part of the boards of multiple companies
united states steel
was the first billion-dollar super corporation and was created by Carnegie.
gospel of wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
william james
United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910)
henry george
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
nativism
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate
philanthropy
voluntary promotion of human welfare
morrill act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
geronimo
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
helen hunt jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)
patrons of husbandry
organized agrarian group also known as the grange
granger laws
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
ghost dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
free silver
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
homestead strike
Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers
jim crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
pullman strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
wilson gorman tariff
1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program
pendleton act
It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism
mugwumps
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
john p altgeld
Governor of IL
pardoned 3 of the anarchists arrested without ties to Haymarket Square
loses reelection, despite praise for freeing the innocent
capital goods
buildings, machinery, tools, and other goods that provide productive services over a period of time.
plutocracy
a political system governed by the wealthy people
injunction
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
yellow dog contact
states that one of the condtions of employment is that the worker agrees not to join a union
national labor union
organized in 1866 have about 600,000 members agitated for arbitration of disputes and an 8 hour workday
bessemer process
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
horatio alger
United States author of inspirational adventure stories for boys
mark twain
United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)
pragmatism
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
yellow journalism
sensationalist journalism
temperance union
fought alcoholism on the state level through blue laws and on the national level with the 18th Amendment which prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor.
oliver h kelley
considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.
nez perce
the Shahaptian language spoken by the Nez Perce people
apache
the language of the Apache people
william mckinley
25th President of the United States
sixteen to one
Ratio of silver to gold that Bryan rested his presidential platform on
cross of gold speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
american protective association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
gold standard act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.