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Terms in this set (14)
Laws that govern human nature
An implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
Rights that belong to all humans from birth.
He believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish and that if they weren't controlled they would fight, rob, and oppress one another. He argued that that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. He also believed in absolute monarchy, which to him could impose order and compel obedience of the people.
Had an optimistic view of human nature, believing that people were reasonable and moral and had natural rights that included the right to life, liberty, and property. He set out the idea that a government had an obligation to the people it governs and if a government fails its obligations or violates peoples natural rights then the people have the power to overthrow that government.
Baron de Montesquieu
Studied the government of Europe, and published The Spirit of the Laws that discussed governments throughout history and also discussed how Great Britain's limited monarchy was. He liked the idea of having three separate branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial. And also felt that each branch of government should be able to serve as a check on the other two.
Philosphes ("Lovers of Wisdom")
Members of a group of enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
Real name is Francois-Marie Arouet. He was a writer who detested the slave trade and deplored religious prejudice. In his writings he often "attacked" corrupt officials and idle aristocrats. The French government and Catholic Church were offended by his outspoken "attacks" and he was imprisoned and forced to exile. But he continued to defend the principle of freedom of speech.
Produced a 28- volume encyclopedia. His purpose was "to change the general way of thinking" by explaining the new ideas on topics such as government, philosophy, and religion. He had articles from leading thinks of the day, including Montesquieu and Voltaire in the encyclopedia. The French government argued that the Encyclopedia was an attack on public morals, and the pope threaded to excommunicate the Roman Catholic's who bought or read the volumes.
Believed that people were good and that natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society. Wrote The Social Contract and described in it his belief that society placed too many limitations on people's behavior. He put his faith in the "general will" or the best conscience of the people. He also discussed that the good of the community as a whole should be placed above individual interests.
A well-known British social critic that believed that a woman's first duty was to be a good mother but at the same time she felt woman should be able to decide what is in her own interests should not be completely dependent on her husband. She published Vindication of the Rights of Woman; in the book she stated her opinion that boys and girls need equal education.
Focused on economic reforms, they looked for natural laws to define a rational economic structure.
Policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
The Wealth of Nations
Written by British economist Adam Smith, It argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate the business activity.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Changes in Europe
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