44 terms

AFRS 161 Ch. 1 & 2 Terms ir

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Civic Virtue
the subordination of individualism and individual self-interest to the interest of the society
Classical Liberalism
Western European political philosophy that is concerned with the freedom of the individual and the role of government in protecting that freedom
Classical Republicanism
a theory that rule by the people ought to be indirect through representatives
Conservative
Individual who believes government should have a limited role in the lives of individuals and that government is not the source of solutions for problems
Constitution
A set of formal written rules and principles governing a state
Constitutional Democracy
A government that derives its authority from a constitution
Coverture
A doctrine and system in British common law according to which marriage merged a woman's legal identity with that of her husband.
Democracy
A system of government in which political power is exercised by the people.
Direct Democracy
A democracy in which the people are able to participate directly in decision making.
Feudalism
A system of landholding involving a network of allegiances and obligations.
Government
A social institution that controls the behavior of people; the political and administrative hierarchy of an organized state.
Indirect (representative) Democracy
A democracy in which people do not participate directly in decision making and instead elect individuals to represent their interests
Inegalitarianism (tradition of exclusion)
tradition of excluding large segments of the American population from participating in the political system despite the language of equality, liberty, and freedom
Liberal
An individual who believes that government has a role to play in the lives of individuals and that government can provide solutions to policy problems.
Natural Law
A law that comes from nature and is superior to statutory law
Natural Laws
Rights to which every person is entitled, such as life and liberty; rights that are not dependent on government
Politics
The conflict, competition, and compromise that occur within a political system
Public Good
A government policy or action that benefits society as a whole rather than a specific individual.
Reparations
A concept or tool for providing monetary payments to members of aggrieved groups based on past wrongful actions against them or their ancestors
Republican form of government
A government whose powers are exercised by elected representatives who are directly or indirectly accountable to the people governed.
Rule of Law
The predominance of law over discretionary authority.
Social Construction of Race
The construction of a group of people of various phenotypes, skin colors, and physical characteristics for political and social purposes such as enslavement and exclusion.
Social Contract
Individuals creating government by entering into a contract with it.
Statutory Law
A type of law pertaining to rules made by legislatures, especially Congress.
Tradition of Exclusion
A tradition that excludes groups from the political system based on their ascribed traits, such as race, gender, and religion.
Antifederalists
Opponents of the Constitution during the ratification process.
Bicameral Legislature
A legislature with two bodies, usually referred to as the upper and lower chambers, or, as is most common in the United States, the House and the Senate.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which focus primarily on individual liberties and basic rights.
Concurrent Powers
Powers shared by the national government and state governments, such as the power to tax and borrow money.
Confederation
A system in which states or other types of government units organize a weak central government with limited scope and powers while reserving ultimate power for themselves.
Electoral College
The entity that selects the president and vice president, consisting of 538 electors chosen from the fifty states and the District of Columbia.
Enumerated Powers
Powers of the federal government specifically stated in the Constitution.
Federalists
Proponents of the Constitution during the ratification process.
Great Compromise
Worked out by a committee at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, a compromise that called for membership in the House of Representatives based on population, with states having equal representation in the Senate.
Implied Powers
Government powers that are inferred from the powers expressly enumerated in the Constitution.
National Government
A system of government in which powers are distributed between the central government (federal government) and subunits, such as states.
Necessary and Proper Clause
A clause in Article 1 of the Constitution giving Congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities (sometimes called the elastic clause).
New Jersey Plan
Drafted by William Paterson, at the 1787 Constitutional Convention; a proposal for a system of government that called for confederation with a unicameral legislature:
all states were represented equally, a multimember executive without the power to veto legislation, and a supreme court.
Virginia Plan
Drafted by James Madison at the 1787 Constitutional Convention; a proposal for an establishment of a strong central government with three branches a bicameral legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a powerful judiciary.
Separation of Powers
The manner in which the Constitution divides power among the three branches of government—the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary.
Supremacy Clause
A clause in Article 6 of the Constitution stipulating that the Constitution and national laws are "supreme," meaning that when state laws are in conflict with national laws, the latter supersede and take precedence.
The Federalist Papers
A collection of the eighty-five articles written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of the ratification of the Constitution.
Three-Fifths Compromise
A compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention over how state populations were to be counted for purposes of allocating seats in the House of Representatives; each slave was to be counted as three-fifths of a person for representational purposes.
Unitary form of government
A system in which the central government exercises complete control and authority over subunits of government, which means that states or other governmental units do not have autonomous powers.