Openstax Astronomy Ch. 8
Terms in this set (36)
a force of 100,000 Newtons acting on a surface area of 1 sq. meter
igneous rock produced by cooling of lava (most of Earth's oceanic crust is basalt)
movement caused within a gas or liquid by the movement of hotter, less dense material to rise and colder, denser material to sink
The central part of the earth below the mantle
the outer layer of the Earth
a crack in the earth's crust where movement can take place
igneous silicate rock that makes up most of Earth's continental crust
blanketing (absorption) of infrared radiation near the surface of a planet
a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
the area surrounding Earth that is influenced by Earth's magnetic field
Largest layer of the earth between crust and core
rock produced by physical and chemical alteration (without melting) under high temp and pressure
a heavy molecule of oxygen that contains 3 atoms rather than the normal 2
process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convery carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and startches
the motion of segments or plates of the outer layer of a planet over the underlying mantle
rock that has not experienced great heat or pressure
in geology, a place where the crust is being torn apart by internal forces
rock formed by the deposition and cementing of fine grains of materials
vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
the layer of Earth's atmosphere above the troposphere and below the ionosphere
the sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of Earth's crust into the mantle beneath another plate
the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere
place where material from a planet's mantle erups on its surface
How do we know what Earth is made of? What is Earth made of?
we probe using seismic waves; made of metal core and a silicate mantle
What is Earth's crust made mostly of?
oceanic basalt and continental granite
What produces Earth's gravity?
a global magnetic field generated in the core
What are the 3 types of rock?
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
What causes our plates to move?
What does plate tectonics cause?
continental drift, recycling of the ocean floor, mountain building, rift zones, subduction zones, faults, earthquakes and volcanoes
What is our atmosphere mostly made of ?
nitrogen and oxygen
What is the structure of our atmosphere?
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere.
What causes weather?
seasonally changing deposition of sunlight
What causes an ice age?
changes in the planet's orbit and axial tilt
What two gases cause the greenhouse effect?
Carbon dioxide (C02) and methane
What caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?
the large impact 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period.