SCZN Midterm 2 Study Guide

"Abstract Awareness" - In cell development
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Terms in this set (31)
1. Reinforcers
- Bio responses that increase the likelihood of behavior occurring again, does not need to be conditioned, these effects are relative and not intrinsic quality of the stimulus, processes: satiation and deprivation

2. Punishers
- Bio prepared responses that we find painful and can endanger our survival, does not need to be conditioned, Effects are relative and not an intrinsic quality of the stimulus, processes: adaptation and the threshold effect, both use pavlovian wording
Secondary / ConditionedReinforcers - Antecedent stimuli that regularly predicts primary reinforcers - Uses operant conditioning terminology Punishers - Antecedent stimuli that regularly predicts primary punishers - Uses operant conditioning terminology(The Stimulus Collage), Explain and provide examples for the 3 main ways in which by multiple antecedent stimuli can have stimulus control (Stimuli that are effective at producing a response) over us? (Hint... Baby crying)The stimulus collage contains multiple antecedent stimuli that affect our thoughts words and behaviors: Both internal and external sources can affect behavior: Some might be logical and others might be complicatedThe 3 main ways in which by multiple antecedent stimuli can have stimulus control...1. Past conditioning - Past conditioned behaviors can influence future ones 2. Salience (conspicuousness) of the stimuli - The closer the stimuli is the more likely it will have stimulus collage 3. Competing / Facilitative Responses - Multiple stimuli can be competing and/or facilitativeGeneralized GeneralizationWhen a given stimuli or behavior is similar to other antecedent stimuli that has stimulus control over you, there is a tendency to respond in similar ways - The more similar the new stimili is to one with the stim control, the higher the rate of responding to that stimuli, we use generalization multiple times per day, everyday.Response Generalization (Simplified)the process (along with shaping) that allows for variations of operants to appear and increase in frequency even though the specific operant was never reinforced - If the new behavior is reinforced after it has been generalized, new variations of that behavior will experience response generalization as wellResponse Generalization (Operant)- No matter how much a stimuli has been generalized, reinforcing it in a new context can increase the probability of responding in new contexts (However with diminishing returns) - The tendency by which similar stimuli to an sd predictive stimuli elicits the response as well - The probability of responding depends on how many Qs resemble the setting of the original SD BehaviorStimulus Generalization (Pavlovian)- Similar predictive stimuli will invoke the same response when a predictive stimuli comes before a reflex (Pavlovian) and becomes a CS that evokes a response - With any generalization, the generalization gradient (The curve that shows the probability of each stimuli producing a response) decreases the further removed the stimuli is from the original - A reflex response after generalization of a new stimuli may become stronger if this is further Pavlovian conditioning occurs in the presence of this new stimuli and thus strengthen the response rate of the generalization gradient (Scared of pittbulls, attacked by a chihuahua, scared of dogs) - These gradients are affected by the conditioning of new stimuliExtent of Generalization1. Overgeneralization - If the generalization(gzn.) if gzn. is too broad and causes a person to ommit an operant behavior in inappropriate circumstances 2. Undergeneralization / Limited - If the gzn. is too narrow and fails to produceTwo Benefits of Generalization1. A means by which we can spot patterns and adapt 2. A way to apply the vast array of skills we have learned in a new situationDifferential Reinforcement1. When there exists variations of behavior and one or more lead to reinforcement and the others do not 2. DR when used will often drift to more successful ways in which to perform the operant as the behavior that does not yield results will be overshadowed by those operants that do or extinction occurs and no reinforcement is provided 3. (Right Way) And a (Wrong Way) for examplesDifference between DR and Response DifferentiationDR - The process by which a specific operant over other behaviors is deemed most suitable and is reinforced according - It leads to response differentiation by change of behavior Response Differentiation - The behavioral change created from DR in which the operants tend to cluster around the most positive outcome over time - This does not create a new behaviorFixed but Flexible(1-3)1. The ability of once source of stimulus to function as a reinforcer or a punisher is influenced by other stimuli present in the collage 2. Novel stimuli create more SS: Losing novelty = habituation - is slowest when the stimulus is complex, variable, or very different 3. After hab the person can regain a fraction of the novelty once again called recoveryFixed but Flexible (4-7)4. Individuals differ in preffered type of sensory inputs (ex. Introverts vs. extroverts) 5. Even within the same types, people often have different tastes 6. Daily cycles of wakefulness affect the optimal zone and thus the effectiveness of punishers and reinforcers 7. If we are sick or fatigued we cant handle as much SSPremack PrincipleA quick and usefull method by which to determine if a behavior is associated with strong reinforcers, strong punishers, or anywhere in between - Focuses on the frequency of the behavior rather than the stimuli - Employed by parents without realizing itTokensPhysical objects that stand for other types of secondary reinforcement or punishment - Many people find tokens rewarding and will work hard to earn them - Tokens are used in behavior modi to reward target behavior - Token economies can develop and even act in forms of strong punishment (ex. Scarlett Letter)Observing ResponsesOperants that are reinforced by info AKA attentiveness behavior, information is processed and then evaluated - can function as CS/SD or S-Delta. Observing responses are most likely to be performed in times of uncertainty. - Info Cues can increase the chance of reinforcement and decrease the chance of punishmentGood News: Bad News- The stimuli that is most likely to become secondary reinforcers or punishers are those best able to predict that other reinforcement or punishment respectively are likely to come. - Function: 1. CS that elicit response 2. Consequences that modify the outcome, in addition 3. SDs that set the occasion for further operants - Often reinforced by this information they are thusly observational responses underneath OR are most likely to occur in times of uncertainty (gift wrapping example)Generalized Reinforcer- Money in our society is a perfect example (ex. Social attention and socializing as general reinforcers. - People learn that certain stimuli are predictive of a variety of different types of reinforcement across a broad range - May not hold the same weight to each individualGeneralized PunisherPeople learn that certain stimuli are predictive of a variety of different types of punishments across a broad range - Some people learn to discriminate between fake and real smiles (Ch.4) - People generally like to avoid generalized punishers and they typically hold the same weight for those who live in the same societyXerox - Mnemonisd (Main Points)Mnemonisd had perfect memory of their earliest childhood experiences - Memory of mother was cloudy at first and gradually progressed into a sharper image, didnt really understand what was going on, could recognize the voice of his father but not what he said - Can give a lot of insight into early development - Generally an example to prove heb or how it relates to the developmental aspects of childrenFive Phases of Cell Development1. Fuzzy dots, blobs of color 2. Lines and vague simple images that are still fuzzy 3. Surfaces and textures stand out 4. Ability to reverborate, object permanence develops 5. Habituation, ability to quickly think past something - Interaction of cross modal connections, comes over time and is gradual and slow