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Terms in this set (105)
CNS (central nervous system)
brain and spinal cord
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is locate within the skull and spine
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located outside the skull and spine
the first 7 vertebrae, comprising the neck
The section of the spine that provides the flexible framework of the neck or cervix
The section of the spine that supports the small of the back; it lies between the thoracic region and the sacral region
the area where the sacrum is located; forms the tail end of the spinal column
The mass of nerve tissue that is the main control center of the nervous system
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
somatic nervous system
Division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from external receptors and receptors in joints and skeletal muscles, and it conducts motor signals from the CNS to skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
The part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.
it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from receptors in internal organs, and motor signals from the CNS back to the same internal organs
spinal gray matter
The H-shaped area of gray nervous tissue in the core of the spinal cord.
spinal white matter
The area of white nervous tissue in the spinal cord; it surrounds the spinal gray matter.
dorsal roots of spinal cord
31 pairs of sensory nerves that enter the spinal cord; they enter the spinal cord's dorsal surface
bundle of motor neuron axons that exit the spinal cord
31 pairs of motor nerves that exit the spinal cord; they project from the spinal cord's ventral surface
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
project from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
parasympathetic nerves project from the brain and the sacral region of the spinal cord
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Often referred to as the MASTER GLAND
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
The core of the adrenal gland; it is activated by the sympathetic nervous system, and in turn it secretes hormones whose effects are similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system.
outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
testes and ovaries
parallel to the horizon when the subject is in and upright position
divides the body (or organ) into left and right parts
A sagittal section that is cut from the very midline of the brain
Sectional view of the body produced by a cut along the frontal plane; also called a frontal section.
Sections that are cut at right angels to the long axis of any long narrow structure, for example, at right angels to the long axis of the spinal cord
toward the front
also known as rostal
toward the back
also known as caudal
Towrd the surface of the back or top of the head
toward the surface of the chest and stomach or bottom of the head
Toward the midsagittal plane
Away from the midsagittal plane; toward the left or right
Toward the dorsal surface of the head
Toward the ventral surface of the head
from or to the same side of the body
from or to the opposite side of the body
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.
the wall of the cell
the metabolic center of the nueron; also called the SOMA
a neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
The button-like terminal endings of the axon branches
Control center of the cell. Contains DNA.
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
molecules that are released from the buttons of active neurons and influence the activity of other cells
Membrane-bounded compartments in which synthesized neurotransmitters are kept.
Nodes of Ranvier
a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells.
Type of glial cell in the CNS that wrap axons in a myelin sheath.
Type of glia in the PNS, Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
Act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system
Large glial cells such as oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, and astrocytes
large, star-shaped glial cells, whose many projections terminate on other astrocytes, blood vessels, and neurons
between the telencephalon and the mesenchepalon; the most anterior region of the brain stem
the region of the brain stem between the mesencephalon
The most posterior region of the brain; the area of thebrain stem between the metencephalon and the spinal cord; one of the two divisions of the hindbrain
the first pair of cranial nerves; they carry sensory signals from the olfactory bulbs to the brain
The second pair of cranial nerves; they carry sensory signals from the visual receptors of eyes to the brain.
The eighth pair of cranial nerves, which carry sensory signals from the inner ear to brain; one branch carries sensory signals from the organs of balance (i.e., from the vestibular organs), and the other branch carries sensory signals from the organs of hearing (i.e., from the cochlea).
the fifth pair of cranial nerves, each of which has three major branches; they conduct motor signals from the brain to the muscles involved in chewing, and sensory signals from the same muscles and from other parts of the face to the brain
The tenth and longest pair of cranial nerves; they conduct signals to and from the organs of the gut (e.g., to and from the heart, liver, and stomach).
The most posterior of the brain stem; the myelencephalon; its major structures include the pyramids, olives, medullary reticular formation, and the nuclei that contribute axons to cranial nerves 9,10, and 12
two large bulges, one left and one right, on the ventral surface of the medulla; they contain the pyramidal tracts, which carry signals for voluntary movement from the cerebral hemispheres to motor circuits of the spinal cord
olives of medulla oblongata
rounded; protrude from anterior surface. Nuclei within help regulate balance, coordination, modulation of sound from inner ear
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
Three large pairs of tracts (inferior, middle, and superior) that connect the cerebellum to the rest of the brain stem.
The ventral portion of the metencephalon; its major structures include the fourth ventricle, the metencephalic portion of the reticular formation, many ascending and descending tracts, and the nuclei of cranial nerves 5,6,7, and 8
superior colliculi (midbrain)
reflexes for certain visual activities and movements of the head and trunk in response to visual stimuli
inferior colliculi (midbrain)
coordinate movements of the head, eyes, and trunk in response to auditory stimuli
One on the left and one on the right; they have a pinkish appearance and are important structures of the sensorimotor sytsem
gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain
a darkly stained region of the tegmentum that contains neurons that communicate with the caudate nucleus and putamen in the basal ganglia
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Lateral geniculate nuclei
The thalamic nuclei that relay visual information to the cerebral cortex.
medial geniculate nucleus
the part of the thalamus that relays auditory signals to the temporal cortex and receives input from the auditory cortex
ventral posterior nucleus
a thalamic relay nucleus in both the somatosensory and gustatory systems
the layers of white matter in each lobe of the thalamus
the pair of hypothalami nuclei that plays a role in regulating the conversion of blood glucose to body fat; they are located near the midline in the ventral part of the hypothalamus
a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm
part of a system that plays an important role in emotion; they are visible on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus as a pair of bumps just behind the pituitary
The most anterior area of the hypothalamus; it plays a role in sexual behavior
the anterior portion of the pituitary; it releases tropic hormones in response to hypothalamic releasing hormones
posterior pituitary gland
the posterior part of the pituitary gland; an endocrine gland that contains hormone-secreting terminal buttons of axons whose cell bodies lie within the hypothalamus
the stalk from which the anterior and posterior pituitary are suspended from the hypothalamus
contains neurons whose axons terminate in the posterior pituitary; the pair is located on the dorsal surface of the hypothalamus on each side of the hypothalamus on each of the third ventricle
contains neurons whose axons terminate in the posterior pituitary; this pair is located above the optic chiasm, just posterior to the suprachiasmatic nuclei
deep grooves in the brain
shallow grooves that separate gyri
deep groove running from approximately ear-to-ear dividing cerebrum into anterior and posterior portions
the fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes
A long, deep fissure on the lateral surface of the cerebral cortex.
ridges of the cortex
outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
primary sensory areas
areas of cerebral cortex that receive most of their input from the thalamic relay nuclei of a single sensory system; most of their output goes to adjacent secondary sensory areas of the same system
secondary sensory areas
Areas of sensory cortex that receive their input from one primary sensory area and from other secondary areas of the same system; there are typically several secondary sensory areas adjacent to each primary sensory area.
primary motor areas
Areas of motor cortex that send most of their output to subcortical and spinal motor circuits; much of their input comes from adjacent secondary motor areas.
secondary motor areas
areas of motor cortex that send much of their output to areas of primary motor cortex; much of their input comes from association cortex
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
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