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Honors Bio Energy and Matter 2: The Cellular Basis of Activity
Terms in this set (36)
a chemical reaction that releases energy to its surroundings (products have less energy than reactants)
A chemical reaction that takes in energy from its surroundings (products have more energy than reactions)
Doesn't require oxygen
Energy associated with motion
Law of Conservation of Matter/of energy
Neither energy nor matter can be created or destroyed - just change forms
An organism that creates its own food (producer)
An organism that gets food from other sources (consumer)
Most basic unit of matter; made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
A bunch of the same atom
Groups of different elements bonded together
Anything with volume and mass
Forces that can be converted and act upon matter
Amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one kg of water 1 degree Celsius
Measures the amount of calories in food
A series of chemical reactions that turns glucose and oxygen into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide, which provides organisms with usable energy
Cellular respiration equation
C6H12O6 + O2 = CO2 + H2O + ATP
How is ATP like a battery?
When the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups are bonded, it's stores a lot of energy, and when the bond is broken to form ADP, that energy is released.
What is glycolysis?
-First stage of cellular respiration
-no oxygen needed
-occurs in cytoplasm
-one 6-carbon glucose molecule is split into two 3-carbon pyruvate
-produces some ATP
What is the Krebs cycle?
-second stage of cellular respiration
-occurs in mitochondrion
-carbon dioxide, ATP, and loaded electron shuttles are produced
What is the electron transport chain?
-third stage of cellular respiration
-electrons are carried and joins with oxygen to form water
-lots of ATP produced
Series of reactions that converts carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen
Chemical equation of photosynthesis
CO2 + H2O = C6H12O6 + O2
What is the Calvin Cycle?
process in which ATP and NADPH from the light-independent reactions produce high energy sugars.
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
Where do the light reactions happen?
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
stroma of the chloroplast
the attractive forces that hold atoms together and stores energy
Is green light absorbed or reflected by the chloroplast?
Reflected (plants appear green).
How carbon gets into the body: Step 1
-Carbon dioxide from the air is taken up by a plant leaf through the stroma
-Carbon dioxide is used to make glucose during photosynthesis
-Plant builds macromolecules (Protein from amino acids/Starch from sugar)
How carbon gets into the body: Step 2
-Cow eats the plant
-In cow, plant starch and proteins are diverted to amino acids and sugar
-Sugar in cow's bloodstream is broken down by cellular respiration
-In cow, ATP energy from cellular respiration is used to build proteins from amino acids which become part of muscle tissue in the cow
How carbon gets into the body: Step 3
-Cow is slaughtered and human eats it
-Digestion breaks down protein into amino acids
-Amino acids turn to protein and become muscle through biosynthetic reactions
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