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Cognition exam 1
Terms in this set (114)
When the amygdala is stimulated, what reactions are likely to result?
fearful hallucinations, frightening flashbacks in memory
The ____ plays a critical role in the formation of new memories.
Disruption in the hippocampus does NOT seem to result in deficits in ____ memory.
Which area of the brain is known to sort information and send it to appropriate areas in the cerebral cortex?
Physicians make a determination of brain death based in part on the lack of activity of the ____.
____ refers to transmission of information to the opposite side, whereas ____ refers to transmission to the same side.
The corpus callosum serves to ____.
allow transmission of information between the left and right hemispheres
The two halves of the brain, which rely on the corpus callosum for communication, are called _____.
Paul Broca believed that ____.
the left hemisphere of the brain is critical to normal speech function
Based on extensive research, Karl Lashley concluded that localization of specific memories ____.
cannot be demonstrated
Which part of the left hemisphere of the brain appears to contribute to language comprehension?
Which abilities have been found to be localized on the right side of the brain for most split-brain patients?
the ability to follow stories
The approach to studying the brain in order to understand what specific part of the brain controls what specific skills or behaviors is called ____.
localization of function
____ is well known for his work with split-brain patients.
The cerebral hemispheres and cortex can be divided into four parts, called ____, that are largely arbitrary anatomical regions divided by fissures.
The frontal lobe is responsible for ____.
higher thought processes and motor processing
The parietal lobe is primarily responsible for ____.
Which part of the brain, located in the frontal lobe, is important for controlling movement?
primary motor cortex
The parietal lobe contains the ____, which is involved in experiencing pressure, texture, temperature, and pain.
primary somatosensory cortex
Cells called ____ transmit information throughout the nervous system.
What is the junction between terminal buttons of one neuron with the dendrites of other neurons called?
The chemical messengers of the nervous system are called ____.
Derrick has a number of electrodes attached to his head. He is probably about to participate in a study involving use of ____.
Which type of metabolic imaging technique uses a radioactive form of oxygen that emits positrons as it is metabolized to look at the physiological functioning of the brain in action?
Which neuroimaging technique is able to look at increases in oxygen use to produce an image of the working brain?
. ____ refer(s) to the set of psychological processes by which people recognize, organize, synthesize, and give meaning (in the brain) to the sensations received from environmental stimuli (in the sense organs).
When your eyes are exposed to a uniform field of stimulation (e.g., a red surface area without any shades, a clear blue sky, or dense fog), you will stop perceiving that stimulus after a few minutes and see just a gray field instead. Such a uniform visual
Transduction of electromagnetic light energy into neural electrochemical impulses occurs in the ____.
Which long thin photoreceptors work well under situations in which light is dim?
Which short and thick photoreceptors work well in situations in which the light is bright?
Which hypothesis suggests that there are two distinct visual pathways in the brain; one pathway is important for the location of the object in space and the other is for identifying the object?
____ start with the stimulus, are data driven, and view perception as occurring when the information from the stimulus is transported to the brain.
bottom up theories
Feature matching theories are best described as ____.
The pandemonium model, based on the notion that metaphorical "demons" with specific duties receive and analyze the features of a stimulus, is a ____ theory of perception.
According to Hubel and Wiesel, ____ cells receive input from neural cells projected from the thalamus and then fire in response to lines of particular orientations and positions in the receptive field. These cells differ from one another in that each cell responses only to a specific line orientation
____ perception refers to a key view of perception which asserts that the perceiver builds the stimulus that is perceived, using sensory information as the foundation for the structure, but also considering the existing knowledge and thought processes of the person.
Identification of an item may be influenced by surrounding information especially when the sensory information is ambiguous. This illustrates ____ effects.
Top-down processing is to bottom-up processing as constructivist is to ____.
The Gestalt principles of form perception, including proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, and symmetry, all support the overarching law of ____.
____ refers to a severely impaired ability to recognize human faces.
When someone approaches us, we do not experience the person becoming larger as he or she comes closer, despite the fact that the retinal image is enlarging dramatically. This phenomenon is called ____ constancy.
When someone opens a door, we do not experience the door as becoming distorted in form, from a rectangle to a diamond to a flat, thin stripe, and the like. Rather, we recognize the door as remaining in its original form. This phenomenon is called ____ constancy.
Which cues about depth are represented in just two dimensions and can be seen with just one eye?
monocular depth cues
Painters often use ____ in their work to provide a perspective of depth to the artwork.
monocular depth cues
Texture gradients, relative size, interposition, linear perspective, and aerial perspective are all examples of ____ depth cues.
In ____, the two eyes increasingly turn inward as objects approach the eyes; in turn, the brain interprets these muscular movements as indications of distance from the eyes
In ____, the two eyes send increasingly differing images to the brain as objects approach the eyes.
____ refers to a severe deficit in the ability to perceive sensory information.
Generally, people with agnosia have normal sensations of what is in front of them but have trouble with the ____ pathway.
A cognitive psychologist is LEAST LIKELY to study whether ____.
a group of people present affect how much is given to charity
uses logical analysis to understand the world and people's relations to it
An empiricist ____.
believes that knowledge is acquired through experience and observation.
Psychology is sometimes viewed as a merging of ____.
philosophy and physiology
Descartes is best described as having been a(n) ____.
believed in an integration of rationalism and empiricism
Wilhelm Wundt's idea of ____ involved looking inward at the contents of one's consciousness
Which researcher examined the impact of rehearsal on memory using himself as a subject?
The "law of effect" states that a stimulus will tend to produce a certain response over time if the ____
organism is repeatedly rewarded for that response
The landmark experiment in which dogs salivate at the sight of the person who feeds them provides an example of ____.
classically conditioned learning
Skinner's argument included the idea of operant conditioning, which refers to his belief that ____.
the strengthening or weakening of behavior, depending upon the presence or absence of reinforcement or punishment, explains all human behavior
Which of the following is a legitimate criticism of behaviorism?
The behavioristic principles did not explain language learning well.
After conducting an experiment, the means for the two groups are not identical which may suggest a difference between the two groups. However, in order to be sure, you need to analyze the experimental results in terms of the likelihood that the result simply occurred by chance. This is called ____.
. In an experimental design, what is often the variable of interest that is being manipulated
In an experimental design, what is often the outcome or the variable that is being measured (e.g., score on a test)?
When compared to the population, a ____ does a good job of reflecting many of the characteristics of the population.
In a ____, every individual in the population of interest has an equal chance of being selected for an experiment.
Which type of study simply looks for a statistical relationship between two or more variables without manipulating the variables of interest?
Which technique for studying the brain occurs after the death of the individual, and relates function prior to death to observable brain features after death?
Lequoia decides to conduct a study at the mall. She watches people at the mall for very specific behavior and simply keeps track of the number of times the behavior occurred for various groups. This is an example of ____.
Ecological validity refers to the degree to which lab data hold true when altered to account for ____.
the degree to which data gathered in a lab will apply outside the lab, given the influences of the environment on cognitive activity
Which theme of cognitive psychology relates to how we discover truth about ourselves and the world, through the use of reason and logic or through observing and testing what we can sense?
rationalism versus empiricism
Which major theme for cognitive psychology relates to whether research should focus on fundamental cognitive processes or focus on practical uses for the knowledge that results from the experiment?
applied vs. basic research
Which major theme of cognitive psychology relates to whether the brain should be studied through methods like sophisticated imaging techniques or should focus on measurable performance like how many items from a list can be recalled?
biological versus behavioral methods
Santiago says that in order to understand cognitive processes, we need to look directly at the brain to see how it functions. Ayami disagrees and says that we need to look at how people perform on various cognitive tasks. This disagreement is an example of the theme of ____.
biological versus behavioral methods
Santiago and Ayami disagree on the direction of their research lab. Santiago is simply interested in a particular phenomenon and wants to study it for the pure sake of knowledge; Ayami, however, wants to be able to take what is learned and use it in practical settings. Their disagreement is an example of ____.
applied v basic research
____ is the means by which we actively select and process a limited amount of information from all of the information captured by our senses, our stored memories, and our other cognitive processes.
____ includes both the feeling of awareness and the content of awareness.
____ refers to our ability to attend to some stimuli while ignoring or minimally processing other stimuli.
Suppose you are a radiologist reading mammograms. Your job is to determine whether there are any suspicious, possibly malignant images. In this type of task, the stimulus that you are attempting to detect may be called a ____.
Splitting your attentional resources between two or more different task is called ____.
____ refers to a situation in which we must prudently allocate cognitive resources so we can complete two or more tasks simultaneously.
According to signal-detection theory, a ____ occurs when we correctly identify the presence of a signal.
according to signal-detection theory, a ____ occurs when we incorrectly report that a signal is present when it is, in fact, absent.
According to signal-detection theory, a ____ occurs when we incorrectly report that a signal is absent, when it is, in fact, present.
According to signal-detection theory, a ____ occurs when we correctly report that a signal is absent.
____ refers to a person's ability to attend to a field of stimulation over a prolonged period, during which the person seeks to detect the appearance of a particular target stimulus of interest.
alice is a lifeguard at a busy beach. When on duty, she must remain alert to detect someone having difficulties in the water or other potentially dangerous situations, despite prolonged periods during which no danger is present. Alice's job requires great ____.
____ refers to situations in which we actively seek out particular stimuli.
The ____ phenomenon refers to the process of tracking one conversation in the face of the distraction of other conversations.
____ presentation refers to the simultaneous presentation of different auditory stimuli (such as verbal messages) to each ear.
Which model of selective attention suggests that, while there are multiple channels for sensory input, only one channel is processed while the other channels of information are filtered out before sensory processing?
According to the ____ theories of attention, information is selectively blocked out or attenuated as it passes from one level of processing to the next.
filter and bottleneck
Which model of selective attention suggests that messages that are of high importance to a person may break through the filter of selective attention?
moray's selective filter model
Which model of selective attention suggests that instead of blocking out stimuli, the filter merely weakens the strength of all stimuli other than the target stimulus?
Treisman's attenuation model
Which model of selective attention suggests that the filter for blocking signals occurs after sensory processing and allows for both perceptual and conceptual analysis of information to take place?
Deutsch and Deutsch's late filter model
Research suggests that children of mothers with lower levels of education show ____ of selective attention on neural processing
____ model combines early-filter and later-filter models by suggesting that there are two processes, preattentive and attentive, that govern attention.
According to the ____ theories of attention, people have a fixed amount of attentional capacity that they allocate to the perceived task requirements.
Which best describes the capacity model of attention?
We have a fixed amount of attention that we can use on multiple tasks.
Most people can listen to music and write a paper simultaneously, but it is harder to listen to the news station and concentrate on writing at the same time. This is because ____.
listening to the news and writing a paper both require verbal processing
What does research on attention state about multitasking?
Multitasking makes you slower and more prone to make mistakes.
Which statement about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is true?
Those with it have difficulty focusing their attention.
A person with lesions in the visual cortex may report not being able to see information; however, if forced to answer about an item, the person can often correctly guess the location and orientation of various objects. This suggests that some processing of visual information occurs outside of conscious awareness, a process called ____.
In the making of a movie, any particular scene is often filmed several times. No matter how hard they try during the editing process, there is often some discontinuity in the scenes (e.g., an object suddenly changes location from one location to another). Failure to notice these changes would be an example of ____.
What attentional dysfunction, typically due to lesions in the parietal lobes, occurs when a person ignores information from half of their visual field?
____ refers to the process by which a person repeats a procedure so frequently that the procedure changes from being highly conscious and effortful to being relatively automatic and effortless.
____ refers to accidentally repeating steps of an automatic procedure after the procedure has been completed.
Your younger sibling has a nasty habit of trying to annoy you when you are calling a phone number that is not already in your phone by shouting out random numbers as you enter the correct digits. Your sibling is hoping you will make a(n) ____ error.
____ processing refers to cognitive processing that requires conscious control and effort that is performed one step at a time.
____ processing refers to cognitive manipulation that requires no conscious decisions or intentional effort.
The ____ refers to the psychological difficulty in selective attention that occurs when a literate person attempts to name the colors of ink used to print the color words for other colors (e.g., "blue" may be printed in red ink).
Mistakes are to controlled processes as ______ are to automatic processes.
____ refers to the process by which particular stimuli activate mental pathways that enhance the ability to process subsequent stimuli related to the initial stimuli in some way.
____ refers to an experience involving the preconscious level of consciousness, in which a person tries to remember something that is known to be stored in memory, but that the person cannot quite retrieve.
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
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