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Biology 1210 Test Chapters 1-2
Terms in this set (97)
Describe the 5 fundamental characteristics all living organisms share.
Energy: All organisms acquire and use energy
Cells: All organisms are made up of membrane-bound cells
Information: All organisms process hereditary information encoded in genes as well as information from the environment
Replication: All organisms are capable of reproduction
Evolution: Populations of organisms are continually evolving
Define theory. What are the two theories that form modern biological sciences?
Theory is an explanation for a general class of observations that are supported by a wide body of evidence
- The Cell Theory
- The theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Who were the two people to first observe cells in the late 1660s?
Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Define cell. What are its listed two qualities?
A cell is a highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane and containsconcentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution.
What two ideas does cell theory state? (Hint: Which is the pattern, and which is the
The cell theory states that all organisms are made of cells (pattern) and that all cells come from pre-existing cells (process).
List the four types of macromolecules.
- polypeptide (proteins)
- nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
- carbohydrates (polysaccharide & sugars)
- lipids (fats & phospholipids)
Define the polymer made of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
A polymer is a unit/chain that is made up of a consistent building block.
How many different amino acids are used to construct proteins?
There are 20 different amino acids used to construct proteins.
Which polymer is made of nucleotide monomers?
List the 6 functions of proteins.
Compare the 3 structures of DNA nucleotides and RNA nucleotides.
- adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C)
- ribose --> sugar
- Adenine (A), Uracil (U), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C)
List the 3 uses of carbohydrates. Include the examples!
- energy as in sugars ( glucose, fructose)
- storage as in polysaccharides (starch & glycogen)
- structure as in polysaccharides (peptidoglycan & cellulose)
lipids are hydrophobic molecules commonly used as fats for energy storage and phospholipids to construct the plasma membrane
Define plasma membrane.
plasma membrane: semi-permeable membrane made . of protein and phospholipids which regulate transport (in/out of a cell)
Name the person who studied small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
rRNA is a molecule found in all organisms within their ribosomes, thus the r stands for ribosomal RNA! Similarities between different
organisms' rRNA is used to understand evolutionary relationships. Pretty cool!
What are the 4 nucleotides that compose rRNA?
Adenine (A), Uracil (U), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G)
The sequence of ribonucleotides in rRNA can change in populations over time (evolve). This means, these rRNA sequences should be more
similar in closely related organisms, and less similar is non-related organisms. This comes
back to using these relations to figure out evolutionary relationships again!
Explain a phylogenetic tree.
- used to show the relationships between species
- branches that share a common ancestor represent species that are closely related
- branches do not share recent common ancestors represent species that are distantly related
Describe the 3 major Domains of organisms.
- domain eukarya (fungi, animals, plants, protists)
- domain bacteria (single celled organisms)
- domain archaea (single celled organisms in extreme environments
Define Svedberg unit (S). What are the Svedberg units for the 3 major Domains of
A unit for sedimentation rate or density. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
What are the three components atoms are composed of? What are their charges?
Where are they located in reference to the atom?
- protons (positively charges particles)
- neutrons ( neutral particles)
- electrons ( negatively charged particles)
- protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus
- electrons are found in orbitals surrounding the nucleus
Define mass number. Define atomic number. Understand the difference, and how to
read their values on a periodic table.
- mass number: number of protons + neutrons
- atomic number: number of protons in the nucleus
- isotopes: forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons (however belong to the element in which they share the same atomic number)
Define forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons. (Hint: They still have
the same atomic number/number of protons!)
How many electrons can each orbital hold? What are grouped orbitals defined as?
- each orbital can hold up to two electrons
- orbitals are grouped into levels called electron shells
Are smaller numbered electron shells closer/farther in relation to the nucleus?
smaller numbers are closer to the nucleus
Each electron shell contains a specific number of
orbitals. Remember orbitals in a group are called electron shells, but how many orbitals
can vary. EX: An electron shell with a single orbital can hold two electrons, because each
orbital can hold up to two electrons. EX: A shell with four orbitals however, can contain
up to eight electrons, because eachorbital can hold a maximum of two, resulting in
4 x 2 = 8 max electrons.
If an electron shell had three orbitals, what would be the maximum amount of electrons
total it could hold?
Do electrons fill the innermost shells first, or fill the outermost shells first?
the innermost shell
The number of unpaired electrons is also known as
valence electrons. EX: Nitrogen has 3 valence electrons.
When are atoms most stable?
when all of the electron orbitals in the valence shell are filled
substances held together by covalent bonds
Compare covalent bonds with ionic bonds.
in covalent bonds, there is a sharing of valence elevtrons by two atoms, however in ionic bonds, electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Define the pull that an atom exerts on electrons.
What does the symbol δ- suggest about an atom? What about δ+ ? (Hint: Explain in
charge, how tight the atom holds onto electrons, and degree of electronegativity.)
- delta negative: holds electrons more tightly- partially negative
- delta positive: weak pull on electrons
Compare non-polar and polar covalent bonds. Give an example of each.
- non-polar covalent bond: elecgrons are evenly shared between two atoms and the bond
- polar covalent bond: electrons are unequally shared
an atom or molecule that carries a charge
Is a cation positively/negatively charged? What about an anion?
cation: positive charge
anion: negative charge
What is the type of bond that arises from attraction between oppositely charged ions?
Unpaired Electrons and their Bonds
The number of unpaired electrons (valence electrons)
determines the number of bonds an atom can make. Atoms with MORE than one
unpaired electron can: form multiple single covalent bonds, form double bonds, or form
List examples of single, double, and triple bonds found in the notes.
Single bonds: water, ammonia, methane
Double bonds: carbon dioxide
Triple bonds: molecular nitrogen
Define molecular and structural formulas. Be sure to understand the difference visually
molecular formulas: indicate the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule ex: H2O, CH4
structural formulas: indicate which atoms are bonded together, and if bonds are single, double, or triple bonds
What are the two models that show molecules in 3D geometry? Be sure to understand
the difference visually.
ball-and-stick models and space-filling models
Define molecular weight.
the sum of the mass numbers of all the atoms in the molecule
What is the value of a mole?
Define molarity. What are the calculations used to find molarity?
number of moles per liter
What are the electronegative charges of oxygen and hydrogen in water? Why?
- oxygen has a partial negative charge (delta negative)
- hydrogen has a partial postive charge (delta positive)
Define hydrogen bonds. Between which molecules can these be found?
the polarity of water molecules results in thew formation of hydrogen bonds
Explain hydrophilic atoms/molecules, and give examples.
-attracted to water due to their charge
- they dissolve in water ex: ions, salts, and polar molecules
Name and describe the four important features of water.
- cohesive: binding between like molecules
- adhesive: binding between unlike molecules
- denser as a liquid than a solid because it expands as it charges from a liquid to a solid
- water absorbs large amounts of energy--> high specific heat, high heat of vaporization
What is the basis of the pH scale?
Proton [hydrogen ion (H+)]
Compare acids and bases
- acids have a pH of less than 7, proton donors
- bases have a pH of greater than 7, proton acceptors
What is the formula to calculate the pH scale logarithmically?
ph = -log [H+]
Explain the relationship between H+ concentration, and pH level. (Hint: Greater
hydrogen ion concentration equals a ? pH.)
- greater H+ concentration- lower oH= more acidic
- lower H+ concentration = higher pH = more basicalkaline
compounds that minimize changes in pH
the capacity to do work or supply heat
Define potential energy. Explain potential energy in reference of electrons.
(stored energy): an objects position determines its ability to store energy, for example electrons in an outer shell have more potential energy than do . electrons in an inner shell
Define kinetic/thermal energy. Explain kinetic/thermal energy in reference of
temperature and movement.
energy of movement (temperature)
- hot: lots of movement
- cold: little movement
Explain the first and second law of thermodynamics.
- the first law of thermodynamics: energy is conserved and cannot be created or destroyed; it can be transferred and transformed
- the second law of thermodynamic
Define the amount of disorder in a group of molecules.
In an example of a normal chemical reaction, the
reactants have high potential energy, and more order (lower entropy). They react into
products with low potential energy and less order (higher entropy). See figure 2.20 for a
What are the two reasons carbon is the most versatile atom on Earth?
- because of its four valence electrons
- because it can form 4 covalent bonds
Define functional groups. What are the six functional groups depicted in the notes? Be
sure to understand the difference between them and recognize their basic structure.
specific arrangement of molecules which have recognizable characteristics (attached to organic molecules)
What are large biological molecules referred as?
Define polymers and monomers.
-macromolecules are polymers
- polymers are "chains" of many identical, repeating, smaller molecules called monomers held together by covalent bonds
requires energy, is organized, and is constructed of a respective monomer
Compare condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis. (Hint: Use Figure 3.4 from the
notes to help!)
- monomer in, water out
- water in, monomer out
List the four types of molecules that make up cells.
- nucleic acids
What are the monomers that construct protein polymers? How many different types of
these monomers are there?
proteins are polymers made of multiple amino acid monomers
- 20 amino acid building blocks used to make proteins
What are the four components in an amino acid that bond to a central carbon atom?
- H: a Hydrogen atom
- NH2: an amino functional group
- COOH: a carboxyl functional group
List the 4 general types of amino acids.
- uncharged polar
Explain the steps of determining an amino acid's characteristics.
Name the amino acids that are non-polar. (Hint: There are 10!)
Name the amino acids that are uncharged polar. (Hint: there are 5!)
Name the amino acids that are acidic. (Hint: There are 2!)
Name the amino acids that are basic. (Hint: There are 3!)
List characteristics of non-polar R-groups.
List characteristics of polar R-groups.
Define peptide bond.
What is a polypeptide referred as when it contains fewer than 50 amino acids? When it
has more than 50 amino acids?
In which direction are amino acids read? (Hint: Does reading begin at the N-terminus or
List and describe the three key characteristics found in the backbone of a polypeptide.
List and describe the six functions of proteins.
The reason why proteins can serve so many diverse functions is because of their diversity in size, shape, and the chemical properties of their
Structure of proteins is essential to their function. Their shape dictates their function.
Name the four levels of structure found in proteins.
Explain why the number of possible primary structures is limitless.
What are the type of bonds that form a protein's secondary structure?
When is hydrogen bonding between sections of the same backbone possible?
Name the two types of secondary structure.
The interactions between _______ of a polypeptide forms tertiary structure.
List and explain the 5 types of R-group interactions.
The bonding of two or more distinct polypeptide
subunits produce quaternary structure.
What is a molecular chaperone's function?
Define denatured protein, and list the three causes of denature proteins.
Define and explain prions. Where are they found? How do they differ from proteins? Etc
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