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Diencephalon

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The brain is mushroom-shaped and divided into four principal parts: the brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Slide 1 shows the diencephalon (purple). The diencephalon (blue in slide 2) consists primarily of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus and sits above the brainstem. The cerebrum spreads over the entire diencephalon.
The brain is mushroom-shaped and divided into four principal parts: the brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Slide 1 shows the diencephalon (purple). The diencephalon (blue in slide 2) consists primarily of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus and sits above the brainstem. The cerebrum spreads over the entire diencephalon.
Select slide 3. The arrow points to the thalamus which contain many different nuclei, each functionally specialized. The thalamus is in contact with the entire cerebral cortex. It is a relay station for sensory information, (in fact all input, except smell), ascending to the cerebral cortex, and it sorts, selects, and transfers the information. It plays a key role in mediating cortical attention, memory, emotion, and somatic input.
Slide 4 shows a frontal section view of the thalamus.
Slide 5 shows the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is involved in regulating body temperature, water balance, appetite, gastrointestinal activity, sexual activity, and even emotions such as fear and rage. The hypothalamus also regulates the release of the hormones of the pituitary gland, and thus it greatly affects the endocrine system.

The epithalamus, the most dorsal portion of the diencephalon, forms a thin roof over the third ventricle. The roof has a vascular choroid plexus located on its internal surface. A small mass called the pineal gland (epiphysis) extends outward from the posterior end of the epithalamus.
Slide 6 shows the pineal gland as a small knob between the large thalamus (both are in purple color). The pineal gland seems to be involved in biological rhythms, such as the sleep cycle.