25 terms

Lipold Weathering and Soil 2019

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weathering
the mechanical and chemical processes that change Earth's surface over time
mechanical weathering
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
chemical weathering
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. The rock is changed into new materials.
ice wedging
Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
abrasion
The process of breaking down rock by grinding or friction. Can be caused by wind, water, glaciers.
surface area
The amount of space on the outside of an object
water
most common cause of chemical weathering, makes rocks dissolve
acid rain
polluted rain that causes chemical weathering
oxidation
oxygen combines with iron and makes the rock soft and crumbly
soil
A mixture of mineral particles and organic material that covers the land, and in which terrestrial plants grow.
pores
small holes and spaces in soil
Decomposition
The process of changing once-living material into dark-colored organic matter.
Inorganic
materials that have never been alive
parent material
The starting material of soil.
climate
the average weather of an area
topography
the shape and steepness of the landscape
biota
all of the organisms that live in a region
horizons
layers of soil formed from the movement of the products of weathering
o-horizon
the top, and organic, layer of the horizon
a-horizon
organic matter from the decay of roots and the action of soil organisms. This horizon is excellent for plant growth.
b-horizon
the layer formed by water depositing clay and other materials below the A-horizon
R-horizon
the unweathered, bedrock layer below the c-horizon
infiltration
How fast water enters soil
fertility
A measure of soil's ability to support plant growth.
C-horizon
layer of weathered parent material