23 terms

DNA Review Adams

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Central Dogma
DNA -> mRNA -> Protein
purpose of translation
Read mRNA to make a protein
Where translation takes place
ribosome in the cytoplasm
Where transcription takes place
nucleus
Purpose of transcription
to make mRNA so that information can leave the nucleus
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
Helicase
enzyme that unzips the DNA strand
DNA -> DNA base pairs (DNA replication)
A-T
T-A
C-G
G-C
DNA -> mRNA base pairs (transcription)
A-U
T-A
C-G
G-C
Sugar in DNA
deoxyribose sugar
Sugar in RNA
ribose sugar
3 parts of a nucleotide
sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base
Relationship between a chromosome, dna, and a gene
A chromosome is made up of DNA and a section of DNA is a gene
mRNA (messenger RNA)
carries information from DNA out of the nucleus
tRNA (transfer RNA)
carries amino acids to the ribosome
a type of frameshift mutation
deletion or insertion
How to translate mRNA into amino acids
use codon chart
Codon
set of 3 bases that code for an amino acid
substitution mutation
the change from one base to another
inversion mutation
When a section of DNA gets flipped
Knowing the base pair rules of DNA led to...
Finding the correct structure of DNA
Knowing DNA's structure led to...
the discovery of the human genome
Transcribe: TAC -GCG - CCC - TAG - ATC - ATT
AUG - CGC - GGG - AUC - UAG - UAA