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Between the Wars (first sections)
Terms in this set (75)
Indian national congress
heavily involved with British politicians who saw no benefits for India (largely ignored), led India to independence and governed through most of postcolonial era
placed severe restrictions on Indian civil rights such as trial without jury and freedom of press & assembly, acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
ensued in 1919 where 1,000 Indian civilians were killed by the British since they were meeting in public
was a Hindu nationalist that believed in ahimsa (non-violence) & civil disobedience
Originally lead movement of resistance to restrictive laws on Indian migrants in South Africa
Major advocate of peaceful protest, strikes, and mass demonstrations; led sustained all-indian campaign for independence from British empire after WWI
Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first populist leader in Indian nationalist movement.
Great Salt March
1930, protest the British salt tax→ major part of Indian non-cooperation movement, Gained support from middle class, peasants, laborers→ basically all of India heading into 1930's
A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
Sherif of Mecca from 1908 to 1917; used British promise of independence to convince Arabs to support Britain against the Turks in World War I; angered by Britain's failure to keep promise; died 1931.
starts after WWI and the creation of the League of Nations which placed governments in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine in control of Britain & France
Movement originating in eastern Europe during the 1860s and 1870s whose leaders argued that the Jews must return to a Middle Eastern holy land; eventually identified with the settlement of Palestine. (jewish nationalism)
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state
1917, issued to create a new Jewish homeland in Palestine after WWI after many Jews were persecuted in Eastern Europe (pogroms)
Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghlul; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922.
Gamel Abdel Nasser
president of Egypt when Israel teamed up with Britain and France to invade the Sinai peninsula; looked good to the Arabs because he stood up to the imperialists
1916 secret treaty between the French and British promising to split the Middle East between them, placed restrictions on Ottoman empire after it dissolved→ leads to rising nationalism in Middle East
Treaty of Serves
1920, called for the surrender of the Ottoman Balkan and Arab provinces, placed restrictions on Ottoman empire after it dissolved→ leads to rising nationalism in Middle East
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
A territory in the Middle East on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Disputed with Israel.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
leader who becomes 1st president of Turkey, institutes several reforms: women's suffrage, secularization, Westernization, industrialization
takes control of Persia by 1925→ modernized Persia (similar to Ataturk)
the right of people to choose their own form of government, wanted by many african nations
Organization that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after World War I
Marcus Garvey and WEB Du Bois
led african nationalism
WEB Du Bois
One of the most influential African American intellectuals and spokesmen of the 20th century. His extensive and widely-read writings on the plight of blacks in American society and critiques of racism were foundational to both civil rights movements in the United States and African resistance to colonialism.
Literary movement in West Africa & Caribbean to combat racial stereotypes of African culture by the French, associated with origins of African nationalist movements
A social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites in south africa.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought greater equality.
dictator that lead a corrupt government→ repressive measures against workers & peasants, political opponents were imprisoned or exiled, elected president of Mexico in 1876
1910-1920, North→ Small farmers and cowboys were led by Pancho Villa, South→ led peasant-based guerilla movement in South with the goal of land reform, These forces led to Madero taking control of Mexico (taking control from Diaz), but soon after he was removed & assassinated by 1913 for being too moderate on land reform
called for political reform to relieve social tension and said he would run against Diaz in 1910 elections → he was arrested and a rigged election put Diaz back in power→ Revolution begins following his release from prison in 1911 until his assassination in 1913
Mexican Revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution (led small farmers and cowboys), succeeded in removing Diaz from power, also participated in removing Huerta and Madero
after assassination of Madero, takes control and begins another dictatorship with support of large landowners, army, and foreign companies, 1914: forced from power by Villa and Zapata
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Díaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform.
emerged as the leader of the Mexican government (~1915) following his defeat of Villa's cavalry and was elected president by 1920
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution., still exists today
the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954.
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after military coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became president in 1946; forced into exile in 1955; returned and won presidency in 1973.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
twenty one demands
a list of demands made by japan after WWI sent to china in 1915, china could not refuse
rape of nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressors slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China.
Chinese civil war
1927-1949, War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.
May Fourth Movement
1919, students led a protest (petitions, strikes, boycotts) against the Treaty of Versailles as China was angry at the results (joined Allies in 1917)—no territorial gains (parts of China given to Japan), The Comintern from Russia also sends ambassadors to China to spread communist ideas (saw success of Russian Revolution in 1921 and began thinking the same model could be adopted for China - intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy)
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Communist escape from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China (90,000 of his followers walked thousands of miles to the rural northwest→ new communist regime begins forming).
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen (Yixian) in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)
military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the leader of the guomindang, became most powerful leader in china (early 1930s), but his nationalist forces were defeated and driven from china by communists after WWII
1924, Reduced Germany's payments and the US would grant loans to Germany to pay back GB & France
1925, France & Germany agree to common borders, France promised military aid to Poland & Czechoslovakia if Germany invaded them, Germany also joins the League of Nations, Promotes a false sense of security & stability
15 countries come together to condemn and renounce war as an instrument of national policy with the hope for peace—no provisions for what to do if war actually broke out, Sets up the idea that the US will help if Europe experiences instability
lasted from the early 1930's until WWII and was a catalyst for radical leadership throughout the world as economies faltered, International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agricultural prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century.
cause of the great depression, since the world was interconnected through trade, there were few areas not impacted by the depression→ Europe, US, Latin America. Production was exceeding demand in Latin America & Africa markets→ leads to price & production drops leading to wage drops/unemployment. As countries focus on domestic trade, the global economic market drops 38% in 4 years
stock market crash**
cause of the great depression, October 1929→ as prices dropped and business struggled, many US investors began selling their stocks as they lost confidence in prices
cause of the great depression, as people feared banks closing, bank runs occurred to quickly withdraw money from banks leading to many banks failing→ people lose all their savings as banks are not insured at this time
A situation in which many depositors simultaneously decide to withdraw money from a bank
consumer spending and investments decrease and companies fire workers or lower wages
Combination of socialist and communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong measures of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; fell from power in 1938.
British Commonwealth of Nations
free association of former British dominions states on equal terms formed in 1926.
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
British working-class (socialist) political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.
won at the end of the Irish war of Independent which was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland between Irish republican army and British forces
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989)
Extreme nationalists who condemned politician for agreeing to western demands
Invasion of Manchuria
1931, Japanese invade China and set up a puppet state, continue to invade inland China
league of nations
japan joined this in 1920 as a charter member and one of four permanent members of the League Council. Until conflict arose between Japan and the organization over the 1931 Manchurian Incident, this was a centerpiece of Japan's policy to maintain accommodation with the Western powers.
2nd Sino-Japanese War
1937-1945, Series of violent incidents between Chinese troops, Japanese forces in China led to open warfare
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
World War II
WWII People and Battles
Bolded World History terms- Unit Two
Cold War ID and bolded terms
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