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Bio Chapter 40 (Ecology)
Terms in this set (58)
A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
A comparison of migratory and non-migratory Canada goose populations demonstrates that
Non-migratory populations have more energy to devote to reproduction, and so they tend to increase faster
The total number of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area at a given time is the
The average number of individuals of the same species per unit of surface area at a given time is the
What distribution pattern is the most common in the natural world?
The distribution of the human population in the united states is
Measuring the population size in several quadrants and then using that data to estimate total population size is a good method for
barnacles and creosote bushes
Capture-recapture is a good way to estimate the population size of
butterflies, cardinals, and field mice
At time one, 50 butterflies were captured and were marked with paint. Two days later 100 were captured and 10 had been previously marked. What is the estimated population size?
The maximum rate of increase of a population is its
The biotic potential
varies from one species to another, is controlled by the timing of the first reproduction, is controlled by the frequency of reproduction, and is controlled by the number of offspring produced.
Population size depends open
deaths, births, migration, and immigration.
The growth rate of a population per unit of time is calculated by using this formula : G=r X N. What does the r do and how is it calculated?
r is the per capita growth rate and is calculated by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births.
Zero population growth is achieved when?
the population size has been stabilized for a long time
A situation in which the birth rate equals the death rate is called?
zero population growth
The rate of increase for a population (r) refers to what kind of relationship between birth rate and death rate?
the difference between them
What characteristic of a population is a convenient way to express the rate of change within a population?
A population that is growing exponentially in the absence of limiting factors can be illustrated by which curve?
Which concept is a way to express the growth rate of a given population?
With exponential growth
r is always greater than zero and the number of new individuals added increases each generation, although r stays the same.
are limited by the carrying capacity
produce more pronounced effects as a population grows, prevent a population from producing a J-shaped curve, can be either density-dependent or density-independent, and act together in concert to form the environmental resistance to population growth.
A J-shaped growth curve is converted to an S-shaped one
when the carrying capacity is reached
The carrying capacity of an environment is determined by
the sustainable supply of resources it provides
A change in population that is not related strictly to the size of the population is best described as
In itself,a flood that washes away an entire population of rabbits is
What density-dependent factor controls the size of a population?
What is not a density-independent, growth-limiting factor?
Density-independent controls over population growth include
As population density increases, the chance of what also increases?
parasitism, pathogens, predation, and competition.
A cohort is?
A group of individuals of the same species born during the same time interval
Life tables provide data concerning?
expected life span, reproductive age, death rate,and birth rate.
A type III survivor ship curve is characteristic of?
Organisms that demonstrate a type I survivor ship curve are characterized by?
low reproductive rate, large offspring
A type III survivor ship curve (mortality high at birth and decreasing with age) is characteristic of all species except?
Traits that influence the life history pattern of a living organism are?
the age at which the organism begins to reproduce, how often the organism reproduces, the number of offspring produced per reproductive event, and the length of the reproductive stage.
Type II survivor ship curves
typify a population in which all ages have an equal chance of surviving
Guppies that grew in streams with killifish
had fewer broods per year and produced at an older age
In Atlantic codfish, pressure on the population by commercial fishing caused?
the size at sexual maturity to decrease and the age of sexual maturity to decrease.
When guppies from streams with cichlids were moved to streams with killifish, what happened?
Guppies became larger over several generations.
What is not a reason for the rapid population explosion of humans?
longer generation times
What is not a factor that has led to the dramatic increase in the human population?
an increase in the levels of pollution in the world.
The earliest human populations were found in?
dry woodlands and savanna
Which group of plants formed the basis for the development of agriculture and the spread of civilization?
In the mid-1300's, a pandemic called the Black Death
killed one-third of the population of Europe.
The momentum of human population increase, or the length of time it takes to slow human population growth, is influenced most by?
the percentage of humans in the pre-reproductive age groups.
The age structure diagram for rapidly growing populations
is in the form of a pyramid and has very broad base showing a large number of young
In what demographic model is population growth the fastest?
What statement most accurately describes a comparison of demographic indicators between the United States, Brazil, and Nigeria?
The United States and Brazil are higher in life expectancy than Nigeria.
What countries are in the postindustrial phase of demographic transition?
Japan and some countries in Eurpoe
The ecological footprint is a measure of
the amount of the Earth's surface is required to support a particular level of development and consumption in a sustainable fashion.
The current ecological footprint of a person in the United States is __ that of a person in India and __ the world average?
What does not affect population size?
What does not follow a type II survivor ship curve?
large mammals with extended parental care
What does not follow a type III survivor ship curve?
What is not a density-independent factor?
What does not describe a guppy population study?
Cichild fish were removed from one of the guppy sites in the streams
What trait did humans not possess bc of their large brains?
ability to prevent diseases such as the Black Death