_______ is the oxygen-carrying substance in a red blood cell.
White blood cells are also called
White blood cells with granular cytoplasm are called
White blood cells lacking granular cytoplasm are called
Normally, the most numerous white blood cells are
A platelet, a fragment of a cell, lacks a(n)
The antigens of the ABO blood group are located on the red blood cell
the blood of every person contains one of (how many possible?) ______ combinations of antigens.
Type A blood contains antigen
Type B blood contains antigen
Type A blood contains ___ antibody in the plasma
Type B blood contains ___ antibody in the plasma
Persons with ABO blood type ______ are sometimes called universal recipients.
Persons with ABO blood type ______ are sometimes called universal donors.
The Rh blood group was named after the
Of the antigens in the Rh group, the most important is
If the red blood cells lack Rh antigens, the blood is called
If an Rh-negative person who is sensitive to Rh-positive blood receives a transfusion of Rh-positive blood, the donor's cells are likely to
An Rh-negative woman who might be carrying a(n) ______ fetus is given an injection of RhoGAM to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis).
Structure from which chordae tendineae originate
Prevents blood movement from right ventricle to right atrium
Membranes around heart
Prevents blood movement from left ventricle to left atrium
Gives rise to left and right pulmonary arteries
Drains blood from myocardium into right atrium
Inner lining of the heart chamber
Layer largely composed of cardiac muscle tissue
Space containing serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats
Drains blood from myocardial capillaries
Supplies blood to heart muscle
Distributes blood to body organs (systemic circuit) except lungs
The right tricuspid valve is the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle whereas the pulmonary valve is at the base of the pulmonary trunk where it prevents blood from flowing backwards.
Compare the structure of the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve with that of the pulmonary valve.
The chordae tendineae anchors the valves and prevent from averting into the atrium. The papillary muscles originate from the chordae tendineae and attach to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle. They open the valves when they contract and close them when relaxed
Describe the function of the chordae tendineae and the papillary muscles.
The aorta pumps blood from the left ventricle to the whole body where there is more pressure, therefore making thicker blood. The pulmonary trunk pumps blood to the lungs where there is less pressure.
What is the significance of the difference in thickness between the wall of the aorta and the wall of the pulmonary trunk?
Vena Cava > Right Atrium > Tricuspid Valve > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Valve > Pulmonary Trunk > Pulmonary Arteries > Lungs > Pulmonary Veins > Left Atrium > Mitral Valve > Left Ventricle > Aortic Valve > Aorta
List the correct pathway through which blood must flow in relation to the region of the heart going from the vena cava to the aorta.
About _____% of the blood from the atria passes into the ventricles before the atrial walls contract.
The period during which a heart chamber is contracting is called
The period during which a heart chamber is relaxing is called
During ventricular contraction, the AV valves (tricuspid and mitral valves) are
During ventricular relaxation, the AV valves are
The pulmonary and aortic valves open when the pressure in the _______ exceeds the pressure in the pulmonary trunk and aorta.
Heart sounds are due to _______ in heart tissues created by changes in blood flow.
The first sound of a cardiac cycle occurs when the ___ are closing.
pulmonary and aortic valves
The second sound of a cardiac cycle occurs when the ______ are closing.
The sound created when blood leaks back through an incompletely closed valve is called a(n)
cardiac muscle tissue
the cells (fibers) of the cardiac conduction system are specialized
Normally, the ___ node serves as the pacemaker of the heart.
The _____ node is located in the inferior portion of the of the interatrial septum.
The large fibers on the distal side of the AV node make up the
The fibers that carry cardiac impulses form the interventricular septum into the myocardium are called
A(n) _______ is a recording of electrical changes occurring in the in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle.
Between the cardiac cycles, cardiac muscle fibers remain _______ with no detectable electrical changes.
The P wave corresponds to depolarization of the muscle fibers of the
The QRS complex corresponds to depolarization of the muscle fibers of the
The T wave corresponds to repolarization of the muscle fibers of the
QRS complex observes atrial repolarization
Why is the atrial repolarization not observed in the ECG?
A rapid heartbeat is called _____; a slow heartbeat is called ______.
Simple squamous epithelial tissue called _____ forms the inner linings of the tunica interna of blood vessels.
The ______ of an aterial wall contains many smooth muscle cells.
The _____ of an aterial wall is largely composed of connective tissue.
When contraction of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel wall occurs, the vessel is referred to as being in a condition of _____.
Relaxation of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel wall results in the vessel being in a condition of
The smallest blood vessels are called
Filtration results when substances are forced through capillary walls by
The pressure of plasma proteins in the blood increases its _______ as compared to tissue fluids.
_______ in certain veins close if the blood begins to back up the vein.
Jaw, teeth, and face
Upper digestive tract, spleen, and liver
Foot and toes
Inferior vena cava
Superior vena cava
The term blood pressure most commonly is used to refer to systemic _____ pressure
The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called _____ pressure.
The lowest pressure in the heart; relates to ventricular relaxation is called ____ pressure.
Pulse rate is equal to
A pulse feels full and is not easily compressed is produced by an elevated
instrument to measure blood pressure
Blood pressure is expressed in units of _____.
The upper number of the fraction used to record blood pressure is called a(n)
the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure
The ____ artery in the arm is the standard systematic artery in which blood pressure is measured.
Nearly round nucleus appears to fill most of the cell
Appears as cell fragments
The nucleus may have up to five lobes
The largest of the white blood cells, 2-3x larger than red blood cells
Granulocyte that is typically bi-lobed
Mature cell lacks a nucleus
Nucleus may be round, oval, kidney-shaped, or lobed
Immature stage, called bands, have a single C-shaped nucleus
Mature cell has a biconcave disk shape
In a blood smear, occur in single to small clusters
Cytoplasmic granules stain reddish
Cytoplasm is very clear
Cytoplasmic granules stain blue
Center appears hollow, but are actually very thin layers
The red iron containing compound on a red blood cell
During blood clotting, platelets release this enzyme
Located in the plasma, they help maintain blood pressure
Active thrombin changes into this chemical that helps clot blood
Cells that manufacture antibodies that fight disease and develop immunity
Located in the plasma, help the development of immunity against disease
Prothrombin is changed into this chemical during blood clotting
Lack of red blood cells and/or oxygen carrying capacity result in this condition
Structures that move a white blood cell and surround a bacterial cell or debris
The process of surrounding a solid substance so as to engulf the substance
The protein threads that trap red blood cells to form a blood clot
Red blood cells live for how many days?
Blood is what percent of water?
At 1% in a blood count, the fewest of the leukocytes are