126 terms

Circulatory System

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Erythrocytes
Red blood cells are also called
Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
The functions of red blood cells are
Hemoglobin
_______ is the oxygen-carrying substance in a red blood cell.
Leukocytes
White blood cells are also called
Granulocytes
White blood cells with granular cytoplasm are called
Agranulocytes
White blood cells lacking granular cytoplasm are called
Neutrophils
Normally, the most numerous white blood cells are
Nucleus
A platelet, a fragment of a cell, lacks a(n)
Membranes
The antigens of the ABO blood group are located on the red blood cell
Four
the blood of every person contains one of (how many possible?) ______ combinations of antigens.
A
Type A blood contains antigen
B
Type B blood contains antigen
Anti-B
Type A blood contains ___ antibody in the plasma
Anti-A
Type B blood contains ___ antibody in the plasma
AB+
Persons with ABO blood type ______ are sometimes called universal recipients.
O-
Persons with ABO blood type ______ are sometimes called universal donors.
Rhesus monkey
The Rh blood group was named after the
Antigen D
Of the antigens in the Rh group, the most important is
Rh-
If the red blood cells lack Rh antigens, the blood is called
Agglutinate
If an Rh-negative person who is sensitive to Rh-positive blood receives a transfusion of Rh-positive blood, the donor's cells are likely to
Rh+
An Rh-negative woman who might be carrying a(n) ______ fetus is given an injection of RhoGAM to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis).
Papillary muscle
Structure from which chordae tendineae originate
Tricuspid valve
Prevents blood movement from right ventricle to right atrium
Pericardial sac
Membranes around heart
Mitral valve
Prevents blood movement from left ventricle to left atrium
Pulmonary trunk
Gives rise to left and right pulmonary arteries
Coronary sinus
Drains blood from myocardium into right atrium
Endocardium
Inner lining of the heart chamber
Myocardium
Layer largely composed of cardiac muscle tissue
Pericardial cavity
Space containing serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats
Cardiac vein
Drains blood from myocardial capillaries
Coronary artery
Supplies blood to heart muscle
Aorta
Distributes blood to body organs (systemic circuit) except lungs
The right tricuspid valve is the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle whereas the pulmonary valve is at the base of the pulmonary trunk where it prevents blood from flowing backwards.
Compare the structure of the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve with that of the pulmonary valve.
The chordae tendineae anchors the valves and prevent from averting into the atrium. The papillary muscles originate from the chordae tendineae and attach to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle. They open the valves when they contract and close them when relaxed
Describe the function of the chordae tendineae and the papillary muscles.
The aorta pumps blood from the left ventricle to the whole body where there is more pressure, therefore making thicker blood. The pulmonary trunk pumps blood to the lungs where there is less pressure.
What is the significance of the difference in thickness between the wall of the aorta and the wall of the pulmonary trunk?
Vena Cava > Right Atrium > Tricuspid Valve > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Valve > Pulmonary Trunk > Pulmonary Arteries > Lungs > Pulmonary Veins > Left Atrium > Mitral Valve > Left Ventricle > Aortic Valve > Aorta
List the correct pathway through which blood must flow in relation to the region of the heart going from the vena cava to the aorta.
70
About _____% of the blood from the atria passes into the ventricles before the atrial walls contract.
systole
The period during which a heart chamber is contracting is called
diastole
The period during which a heart chamber is relaxing is called
closed
During ventricular contraction, the AV valves (tricuspid and mitral valves) are
open
During ventricular relaxation, the AV valves are
ventricles
The pulmonary and aortic valves open when the pressure in the _______ exceeds the pressure in the pulmonary trunk and aorta.
vibration
Heart sounds are due to _______ in heart tissues created by changes in blood flow.
AV valves
The first sound of a cardiac cycle occurs when the ___ are closing.
pulmonary and aortic valves
The second sound of a cardiac cycle occurs when the ______ are closing.
murmur
The sound created when blood leaks back through an incompletely closed valve is called a(n)
cardiac muscle tissue
the cells (fibers) of the cardiac conduction system are specialized
SA
Normally, the ___ node serves as the pacemaker of the heart.
AV
The _____ node is located in the inferior portion of the of the interatrial septum.
AV bundle
The large fibers on the distal side of the AV node make up the
Purkinje fibers
The fibers that carry cardiac impulses form the interventricular septum into the myocardium are called
electrocardiogram
A(n) _______ is a recording of electrical changes occurring in the in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle.
polarized
Between the cardiac cycles, cardiac muscle fibers remain _______ with no detectable electrical changes.
atria
The P wave corresponds to depolarization of the muscle fibers of the
ventricles
The QRS complex corresponds to depolarization of the muscle fibers of the
ventricles
The T wave corresponds to repolarization of the muscle fibers of the
QRS complex observes atrial repolarization
Why is the atrial repolarization not observed in the ECG?
trachycardia; bradycardia
A rapid heartbeat is called _____; a slow heartbeat is called ______.
endothelium
Simple squamous epithelial tissue called _____ forms the inner linings of the tunica interna of blood vessels.
tunica media
The ______ of an aterial wall contains many smooth muscle cells.
tunica externa
The _____ of an aterial wall is largely composed of connective tissue.
vaso constriction
When contraction of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel wall occurs, the vessel is referred to as being in a condition of _____.
vasodilation
Relaxation of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel wall results in the vessel being in a condition of
capillaries
The smallest blood vessels are called
hydrostatic pressure
Filtration results when substances are forced through capillary walls by
osmotic pressure
The pressure of plasma proteins in the blood increases its _______ as compared to tissue fluids.
Valves
_______ in certain veins close if the blood begins to back up the vein.
External cartoid
Jaw, teeth, and face
Renal
Kidney
Celiac
Upper digestive tract, spleen, and liver
Anterior tibial
Foot and toes
Internal iliac
Gluteal muscles
Brachial
Biceps muscle
Popliteal
Knee joint
Suprarenal
Adrenal gland
Internal cartoid
Brain
Anterior tibial
Popliteal
Basilic
Axillary
Common iliac
Inferior vena cava
External jugular
Subclavian
Radial
Brachial
Brachiocephalic
Superior vena cava
Popliteal
Femoral
Radial
External iliac
arterial
The term blood pressure most commonly is used to refer to systemic _____ pressure
systolic
The maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction is called _____ pressure.
diastolic
The lowest pressure in the heart; relates to ventricular relaxation is called ____ pressure.
heart rate
Pulse rate is equal to
blood pressure
A pulse feels full and is not easily compressed is produced by an elevated
sphygmomanometer
instrument to measure blood pressure
mmHg
Blood pressure is expressed in units of _____.
systolic pressure
The upper number of the fraction used to record blood pressure is called a(n)
pulse pressure
the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure
brachial
The ____ artery in the arm is the standard systematic artery in which blood pressure is measured.
lymphocyte
Nearly round nucleus appears to fill most of the cell
platelet
Appears as cell fragments
neutrophil
The nucleus may have up to five lobes
monocyte
The largest of the white blood cells, 2-3x larger than red blood cells
eosinophil
Granulocyte that is typically bi-lobed
erythrocyte
Mature cell lacks a nucleus
monocyte
Nucleus may be round, oval, kidney-shaped, or lobed
neutrophil
Immature stage, called bands, have a single C-shaped nucleus
erythrocyte
Mature cell has a biconcave disk shape
platelet
In a blood smear, occur in single to small clusters
eosinophil
Cytoplasmic granules stain reddish
monocyte
Cytoplasm is very clear
basophil
Cytoplasmic granules stain blue
erythrocyte
Center appears hollow, but are actually very thin layers
hemoglobin
The red iron containing compound on a red blood cell
thrombin
During blood clotting, platelets release this enzyme
albumin
Located in the plasma, they help maintain blood pressure
fibrinogen
Active thrombin changes into this chemical that helps clot blood
plasmocyte
Cells that manufacture antibodies that fight disease and develop immunity
globulin
Located in the plasma, help the development of immunity against disease
thrombin
Prothrombin is changed into this chemical during blood clotting
anemia
Lack of red blood cells and/or oxygen carrying capacity result in this condition
phagocytosis
Structures that move a white blood cell and surround a bacterial cell or debris
pseudopodi
The process of surrounding a solid substance so as to engulf the substance
fibrin
The protein threads that trap red blood cells to form a blood clot
120 days
Red blood cells live for how many days?
90%
Blood is what percent of water?
Type AB+
Universal donor
Type O-
Universal recipient
basophils
At 1% in a blood count, the fewest of the leukocytes are
Both parents
A person inherits sickle cell anemia from