Biology: Molecular Genetics GUHS

California Standard Set 1,4, and 5
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Virus
Package of nucliec acid wrapped in a protein coat (capsid) or lipid envelope
Bacteriophage. (or Phage for short)
a virus that infects bacteria.
Deoxyribonucliec Acid
DNA: molecule that stores genetic information
nucleotides
subunits which make up nucleotides
Nitrogenous base
single ordouble ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms with funtional groups: adeninine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, or thymine.
pyrimidines
Nirtrogenous bases with single ring
Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil
purines
Nitrogenous bases with double rings
Adenine and Guanine
Double helix
DNA Molecule with a twisting shape
DNA Replication
process of copying the DNA molecule using several enzymes and binding proteins to unwind, polymerize, and ligate
DNA polymerases
Enzymes that elongate a complementary strand by adding and binding the nucleotides of the new DNA strand
Transcription
Process in which DNA sequence is used as a template to the form of a single-stranded complementary RNA molecule
Translation
Process in which nuleic acid sequence of mRNA is converted into codes for a amino acid that are binding in the ribosomes to form polypeptides.
Codon
Three-base sequence, codes for amino acid
Messenger RNA
Transcribed from the DNA Molecule in the nucleus, exits the nuclear pores and enters the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located and proteins are synthesized.
RNA polymerases
Enzymes that joins the RNA nucleotides together during transcription - makes polymers of RNA
Introns
mRNA molecule section that is not coded for amino acid
and is removed in the nucleus
RNA splicing
Process which removes the introns and joins the coding regions
exons
Coding region of RNA transcript - the part that leaves the nucleus and used to code for a protein.
Transfer RNA
molecule with an amino acid binding site at one end and a three base anticodon that is complementary to codons on the mRNA
Mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
mutangen
physical or chemical agent that causes a mutation
Ribosomal RNA
The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons and help catalyze the formation of peptide bonds.
Gene Splicing
A genetic engineering technique in which a segment of DNA is removed and replaced with another segment.