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79 terms

Sociology Final

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An apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called
A spurious correlation
The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher
must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research
Imagine that you are repeating research done by someone else in order to assess its accuracy. You are doing which of the following?
Replication
The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as
non-material culture
Sociologists define a symbol as
anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture
Cultural transmission refers to the process of
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another
Which of the following most closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?
People see the world through the cultural lens of their language
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called
values
The dominant values of US culture share which of the following
A belief in individuality
___________distinguish between right and wrong;________ distinguish between right and rude.
1) Mores
2) Folkways
Which discipline defines itself as the "sympathetic study of human society"
Sociology
According to Emile Durkheim, a category of people with a higher suicide rate typically has
lower social integration
The term "sociology" was coined in 1838 by
Auguste Comte
Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?
Social dysfunctions
Unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social pattern are called
Latent functions
The main characteristic of the _________ approach is its view of society as orderly and stable
Structural Functional
Sociologists use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to
information we can verify with our senses
Which of the following terms is defined in the text as "a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a somewhat simplified form"
Concept
Imagine that you are going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, your are using the concept "age" as
a Variable
In the process of measurement, reliability refers to
whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results
Marx described alienation as involving which of the following?
All of the above
Max Weber's analysis of the rise of capitalism provides strong evidence of
the power of the idea to change society
Max Weber described the features of rational social organization pointing to all but one of the following. Which is NOT part of this analysis?
People in the workplace share highly personal relationships
Which of the following concepts were used by Durkhiem to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
anomie
Durkheim explained that organic solidarity is based on
specialization and interdependence
If you were to hear a sociologist speaking of class conflict as the "engine of history", which of the following would it most likely be?
Karl Marx
Carol Gilligan extended Kohlberg's research, showing that
Girls and boys typically asses situations as right and wrong using different standards
When Cooley used the conept "looking glass self", he meant to say that
people see themselves as they think others see them
According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as
significant others
Family is important to the socialization process because
All of the above are correct
Below is a list of traits linked to a total institution; all but one are correct. Which one is NOT correct?
Staff members encourage the individual growth and creativity of inmates
Sociologists use what concept to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status
role
Which of the following is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician
role conflict
The Thomas theorem states that
situations defined as real are real in their consequences
What does the term "presentation of self" mean?
efforts to create impressions in the minds of others
Which of the following might be a part of the classroom performance of a professor
All of the above are correct
The careful observer can notice clues indicating that someone is telling a lie. People give off these clues because
nonverbal communication is hard for most people to control
In terms of dramaturgical analysis, another term for helping a person to "save face", or avoid embarrassment is
tact
The English language often treats as _________ whatever has greater value, power, or importance.
masculine
When interacting with people of an unfamiliar cultural background
what is funny to people in one society may not be funny to people in another society
The concept "retrospective lableing" refers to the process of
Interpreting someone's past consistant with present deviance
Travis Hirschi's control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance
youngster's who "hang out" waiting for something to happen
Using Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that prime targets for deviant labeling include
All of the above
Organized crime refers to
any business that supplies illegal drugs or services
The degree of status consistency is
greater in caste than class systems
At the lowest level of social stratification in acient Japan were the
Burakumin or "outcasts"
Who coined the concept survival of the fittest
Herbert Spencer
Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes; by contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of
a socioeconomic status hierarchy
To impress her friends, Laura wears an expensive dress to a party. A sociologist might say she is engaging in
Conspicuous consumption
Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian?
hunting and gathering
What is the term for a group leadership that emphasizes the completion of task
instrumental leadership
Which of the following statements is consistent with the findings of Solomon Asch?
Many people are willing to compromise their own judgement to avoid being seen as different by others
Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator", showed
People are suprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
What is Robert Merton's terms for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goals
bureaucratic ritualism
The basic idea behind scientific managment is that
applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient
During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United states by being
more collective in their orientation
Read the four statements below. Which of them is NOT evidence of the process called the "Mcdonalization of Society"?
Many new jobs demand creativity and imagination
Using the terms in Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a radical activist who rejects just about everything in the existing society in favor of some alternative system?
Rebel
Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as
a passing episode that has little effect on the person's self-concept
What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?
Sigma
As a social institution, the economy
All of the above are correct
The postindustrial economy is defined by
service work and computer technology
Which of the following statements about the Information Revolution is NOT correct
There was a shift from farming to turning raw materials into products
Turning metals into automobiles is work that falls within the
secondary sector
The United States is a mostly capitalist nation because
The vast majority of productive businesses are privatly owned
In a socialist economic system, "justice" amounts to
trying to meet the basic needs of all in a equal manner
What is the hypothetical economic and political system in which all people in society are socially equal
communism
Read the four descriptions below. Which of them DOES NOT apply to a profession?
working for a large, well-established company
Which of the following would be included in the operation of the underground economy
a taxi driver who fails to report most of her income
The concept oligopoly refers to
domniation of a market by a few companies
Polytheism refers to
belief in many gods
The worlds largest concentration of Jews (6 million) is found in
North America
Which of the following if the oldest of the world religions discussed in the text
Hinduism
The concept karma refers to
the hindu belief in the progress of the human soul
The founder of Buddhism was which of the following people
Siddhartha Guatama
In general, compared to Eastern religions, Western religions
are deity based
Secularization refers to which of the following
The historical decline in the importance of the sacred
Read the four statements below. Which of the four is NOT a trait of religious fundamentalism?
interpreting religious texts literally
Which of the following nations stands out as the most religious of all high income countries
The United States