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U.S History Chapters 13-16 Test Review

The major American export in the middle decades of the nineteenth century was ___ ______
On the eve of the Civil War, about __________ of white southern families owned at least one slave.
Individual masters
As a social institution, slavery in the United States is difficult to generalize about because a key factor in the institution was the behavior of ______________________, which varied greatly.
Slave Uprising
In the 1830s, Nat Turner gained notoriety as the leader of the ___________
Manufacturing in the antebellum south was ______________ on a small scale but was discouraged by the temper of Southern society.
On the eve of the Civil War, the South produced about _________ of the total manufactured goods in the United States.
The most obvious change in the North in the decades before the Civil War was the rapid expansion of ______________.
Cole Fields
The development of the rich anthracite ________________ in Pennsylvania allowed greater flexibility in locating factories.
1825, 1850
From _________ to ___________ American industry was remarkably receptive to technological change.
Industrial Workers
Most of the ____________________ in the mid-nineteenth century lived in the crowded, squalid slums springing up in major cities.
Wives, Children
In the new industrial slums of the 1850s, most factory workers were able to survive because their ___________ and ___________ worked in the factories also.
From 1830-1860 New Bedford was the center of American _________________.
Clipper Shifts
____________________ designed by Donald McKay were popular because they provided fast oceanic transportation.
Baltimore and Ohio
The first railroad to begin operating in the United States was the __________ Railroad.
Before 1860, about three-fourths of all the money invested in ___________ came from private investors.
Steel plow
Farmers of the upper Mississippi River Valley were first able to increase their production because of the development of the __________________.
According to the map, "Railroads, 1860," there was a relative lack of railroads in the ___________.
Mechanical Reaper
Cyrus Hall McCormick played the leading role in perfecting the _______.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the strongest competition for the railroad came from ___________________.
The South was particularly backward in _______________ construction because it had a scattered population.
Between the mid-1840s and the mid-1850s, the American economy experienced one of the most remarkable periods of ________________ in the history of the world.
As a result of the new fugitive slave law from the Compromise of 1850, many northerners who were not _________________ were outraged at the sight of harmless human beings forced to return to slavery.
Uncle Toms Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel which brought home the evils of slavery to many in the North was _______________________.
The "Young America" movement argued that __________________ would triumph everywhere.
The Ostend Manifesto was an American statement that America should buy or seize _________________.
The expansionist mood of "Young America" explains Commodore Perry's expedition to _______________.
Stephen Douglas
The most prominent spokesman of the "Young America" movement was ___ ___.
During the election of 1852, both major political parties supported the ______ of 1850.
Popular Sovereignty
Stephen Douglas staunchly believed that the slavery question in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska should be resolved by enacting _____.
Kansas Nebraska Act
According to your text, the "greatest single step" toward the American Civil War was the _________________________ of 1854.
Know Nothing
The __________ party was most closely associated with Americanism or nativism.
A major cause of the disorder in Kansas was the ___________________ from outsiders from both the North and the South on the slavery issue.
John Brown
In May 1856, ____________ slaughtered five unarmed, pro-slavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek in "Bleeding Kansas."
Charles Summer
Senator _______ was beaten unconscious by a member of the House of Representatives after he gave his "The Crime Against Kansas" speech.
James Buchanan received the Democratic presidential nomination in ____________ mainly because he was overseas during the bitter debate over Kansas.
Dread Scott
A major implication of the _______ decision was that slavery was a nationwide institution, excluded only where states specifically abolished it.
Lincoln's position on ________________ displayed his compassion toward the slave owner but condemnation of slavery.
Lincoln opposed
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, ______________ opposed both slavery and social and political equality for blacks.
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas argued that territories could circumvent the Dred Scott decision by not enacting the laws necessary for slavery. This was called the _______________ Doctrine.
Harpers Ferry
John Brown's goal in attacking ___________________ was to seize the federal arsenal and arm the slaves.
Before John Brown was executed by Virginia for treason, conspiracy, and murder, he behaved with such enormous dignity that many Northerners saw him as a ______________.
In 1860, the ________________ party held two conventions and split into a northern and a southern faction.
Constitutional Union
In the election of 1860, the _________ Party nominated John Bell for president and ignored the conflicts rending the nation.
Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860 with a __________ of the popular vote.
According to your text, among the most basic justifications for secession for the South were the fears of the overpowering Northern _______________.
When the states of the lower South seceded, _______________ thought secession a bluff and announced no plans to deal with it before assuming office.
The upper southern states _______ _________ when Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers after the fall of Fort Sumter.
President Lincoln viewed secession as a rejection of _______ _________.
According to your text, the Civil War was fought to _______ ________ the Union.
States rights
In establishing a new government, the South was handicapped by its __________________ philosophy.
Jefferson Davis
The first and only President of the Confederacy was ___________________.
Bull Run
The first major battle of the Civil War on July 21, 1861 was a disaster for the Union; it was called the Battle of __________________.
After the Union was defeated at Bull Run, Lincoln chose __________ to command the Union forces.
Members of the peace societies in the North were often called _________________.
Habeas corpus
How did Lincoln treat the civil rights of dissenters during the Civil War? He suspended the writ of _____________________ in critical areas and applied martial law freely.
Jefferson Davis
After the Battle of Bull Run, President ____________________ revised his military strategy to rely primarily upon building a strong defense to wear down the Union's will to fight.
Mississippi River
The map, "War in the West, 1862," depicts how control of the __________ was the focus of most of the battles in the West.
The staggering casualties sustained at _______________________ shocked the early confidence of both sides.
Emancipation Proclamation
The ____________________________ directly freed no single slave.
Military Necessity
Lincoln justified the Emancipation Proclamation as a _________________ necessity because it would weaken the enemy.
Most _____________________ politicians defended emancipation on the grounds that northern blacks would all move to the South.
Draft Riots
The New York City ___________________ in July 1863 were triggered by the Conscription Act of 1863 and racial backlash against the Emancipation Proclamation.
In summer 1863, Lee launched his last assault into the North and was defeated in the battle of __________, which probably decided the fate of the Union.
Grant's victory at __________ led to Lincoln's giving him command of all troops west of the Appalachians.
According to your text, how did the Civil War affect the American economy? By speeding economic change, it helped prepare the way for modern __________________ society.
Andrew Johnson
The former Democrat placed on the Lincoln ticket to assure victory in 1864 was _______________________.
The Union general noted for believing in and carrying out the doctrine of total war was _____________________.
Georgia, Atlanta
Sherman's march through ______________ and the fall of ______________, September 2, 1864, contributed greatly to Lincoln's election in November.
Second inaugural
In his _____________________________, Lincoln urged tolerance and mercy toward the South.
On April 9, 1865, Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant at _______________________.
As a result of the _______________________ victory, people tended to view America as a nation, not just a union of states.
President Lincoln's proposed plan for ____________________ the Union permitted states to apply for readmission after 10 percent of the qualified voters took an oath of allegiance.
President Lincoln believed that Reconstruction should avoid _____________________ toward the South.
Andrew Johnson
A fundamental goal of _____________________ was assisting poor whites with free homesteads and public education.
According to the text, the "ultra" Radical _____________________ demanded immediate civil and political equality for blacks.
Black Codes
The measures restricting former slaves to working in farming and domestic service were the ______________________.
During the bitter days of Reconstruction, most __________________ opposed true equality for blacks.
The __________ Amendment to the Constitution broadly defined American citizenship and, according to your text, "reduced the power of all the states."
The conflict between the President and Congress came to a head when Johnson dismissed Secretary of War ______________________.
President Andrew Johnson was ____________________ by the House but not convicted by a two-thirds majority of the Senate.
The __________ Amendment prohibited states from denying blacks the right to vote.
During Reconstruction their opponents called Southern white Republicans ________________.
Freedman's' Bureau
The _________________________ and the "black Republican" governments both devoted much energy and money to public education for former slaves.
Which of the following most accurately describes southern agriculture after the Civil War? Both output and productivity ____________________ dramatically.
Share cropping
As a result of black demands for economic independence and the shortage of capital, the South developed the agricultural system known as ____________________.
Share croppers
Under the crop-lien system, both the ________________________ and the landowners depended on credit, often at high interest rates, from local merchants and bankers.
The average northerner lost interest in ______________________ once it became reasonably certain that blacks would not be reenslaved.
President Grant's
According to your text, ___________________ most serious weakness as president was his failure to deal effectively with economic and social problems.
Whiskey Ring Affair (scandal)
Among the worst scandals of Grant's administration was the __________________.
Samuel Tilden
The apparent winner of the election of 1876, with 203 Electoral College votes and a quarter of a million more popular votes than his opponent, was _________________________.
The disputed electoral votes in the election of ___________ were decided by the electoral commission created by Congress.
Most modern authorities on the Election of 1876 feel that in a fair election, the electoral commission would have recognized _______________ as the winner.
Rutherford Hayes
The president, as a result of the Compromise of 1877, was ____________________.
Compromise of 1877
As a result of the _________________________, Reconstruction ended and a new political order took shape in the South.
After the Compromise of 1877, the former __________________were condemned to poverty and indignity in the interests of sectional harmony.