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ATI Unit 1 & 2 Peds growth and development
Terms in this set (62)
sucking/rooting, palmar, plantar, moro, startle, tonic neck, babinski, stepping
sucking/rooting reflex gone by
palmar reflex gone by
planatar reflex gone by
moro reflex gone by
tonic neck reflex gone by
babinski reflex gone by
stepping reflex gone by
startle reflex gone by
anterior fontanel closes by
posterior fontanel closes by
6-8 weeks (2 months)
infants weight gain
Infants gain approximately 150 to 210 g (about 5 to 7 oz) per week the first 6 months
Birth weight is at least doubled by the age of 6 months
tripled by the age of 12 months.
Infants grow approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) per month the first 6 months of life.
Growth occurs in spurts after the age of 6 months
birth length increases by 50% by the age of 12 months.
6-8 teeth should erupt in infants' mouths by the end of the first year of age.
The first teeth typically erupt between the ages of 6 and 10 months.
1 month gross and fine motor skills
gross - head lag
fine - grasp reflex
2 months gross and fine motor skills
gross -Lifts head off mattress when prone
fine - Holds hands in an open position
3 months gross and fine motor skills
gross -Raises head and shoulders off mattress
-Only slight head lag
fine - No longer has a grasp reflex
›› Keeps hands loosely open
4 months gross and fine motor skills
gross -Rolls from back to side
fine - Places objects in mouth
5 months gross and fine motor skills
gross -Rolls from front to back
fine - Uses palmar grasp dominantly
6 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Rolls from back to front
fine - holds bottle
7 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Bears full weight on feet
fine - Moves objects from hand to hand
8 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Sits unsupported
fine - Begins using pincer grasp
9 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Pulls to a standing position
›› Creeps on hands and knees instead
fine - Has a crude pincer grasp
10 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Changes from a prone to a sitting position
fine - Grasps rattle by its handle
11 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Walks while holding onto something
fine - Places objects into a container
›› Neat pincer grasp
12 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - Sits down from a standing position
fine - Tries to build a two-block tower
infants know that an object still exists when it is
out of view. This occurs at approximately 9 months of age.
erikson trust vs mistrust (birth-1year)
Achieving this task is based on the quality of the caregiver-infant relationship and the
■■ The infant begins to learn delayed gratification.
CHAPTER 3 Health Promotion of Infants (1 Month to 1 Year)
RN Nursing Care of Children 25
■■ Trust is developed by meeting comfort, feeding, stimulation, and caring needs.
■■ Mistrust develops if needs are inadequately or inconsistently met, or if needs are continuously
met before being vocalized by the infant.
begins around 4 to 8 months of age. Infants will protest when separated
from parents, which can cause considerable anxiety for parents.
Stranger fear becomes evident
between 6 and 8 months of age, when infants are less likely to
infant body image changes
Infants discover that mouths are pleasure producers.
■■ Hands and feet are seen as objects of play.
■■ Infants discover that smiling causes others to react.
age appropate toys for infants
Play should provide interpersonal contact and educational stimulation.
◯◯ Infants have short attention spans and will not interact with other children during play (solitary
play). Appropriate toys and activities that stimulate the senses and encourage development include
■■ Teething toys
■■ Nesting toys
■■ Playing pat-a-cake
■■ Playing with balls
■■ Reading books
■■ Brightly colored toys
■■ Playing with blocks
toddlers weight and height
Weight - At 30 months of age, toddlers should weigh four times their birth weights.
◯◯ Height - Toddlers grow about 7.5 cm (3 in) per year.
15 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - ››Walks without help
›› Creeps up stairs
fine- ›› Uses a cup well
›› Builds a tower of two blocks
18 months gross and fine motor skills
gross - ›› Assumes a standing position
›› Throws a ball overhand
fine- Manages a spoon without rotation
›› Turns pages in a book, two or three at
2 years gross and fine motor skills
gross - ››Walks up and down stairs by placing
both feet on each step
fine- ›› Builds a tower of six or seven blocks
2.5 years gross and fine motor skills
gross - ›› Jumps in place with both feet
›› Stands on one foot momentarily
fine- ›› Draws circles
›› Has good hand-finger coordination
language for toddlers - 1 year old
use one-word sentences, or holophrases
language for toddlers - 2 year old
use multiword sentences by combining two to three words
language for toddlers - 3 yeears old
combine several words to create simple sentences using grammatical rules
Erikson - autonomy versus shame and doubt (toddlers 1yr-3yrs)
Independence is paramount for toddlers, who are attempting to do everything for themselves.
■■ Toddlers often use negativism, or negative responses, as they begin to express
■■ Ritualism, or maintaining routines and reliability, provides a sense of comfort for toddlers as
they begin to explore the environment beyond those most familiar to them.
Egocentric - Toddlers are unable to see things from the perspectives of others; they can only
view things from their personal points of view.
■■ Punishment and obedience orientation begin with a sense that good behavior is rewarded and
bad behavior is punished.
appropriate activities for toddlers
Solitary play evolves into parallel play, in which toddlers observe other children and then may
engage in activities nearby.
Filling and emptying containers
■■ Playing with blocks
■■ Looking at books
■■ Push-pull toys
■■ Tossing balls
■■ Finger paints
■■ Large-piece puzzles
■■ Thick crayons
sleep and rest for toddlers
Toddlers typically average 11 to 12 hr of sleep per day, including one nap.
◯◯ Naps often are eliminated in older toddlerhood.
◯◯ Resistance to bedtime and expression of fears are common in this age group.
◯◯ Maintaining a regular bedtime and bedtime routines are helpful to promote sleep.
3 - 6 years
social awareness and the ability to understand the viewpoints of others.
☐ Magical thinking - Thoughts can cause events to occur.
☐☐ Animism - Inanimate objects are alive.
☐☐ Centration - Focus on one aspect instead of considering the whole.
3 year old gross motor skills
›› Rides a tricycle
›› Jumps off bottom step
›› Stands on one foot for a
4 year old gross motor skills
Skips and hops on one foot
›› Throws ball overhead
5 year old gross motor skills
››Walks backward with heel to toe
›› Throws and catches a ball with ease
language for preschoolers
Preschoolers speak in sentences of three to four words at the ages of 3 and 4 years, and four to
five words at the age of 4 to 5 years.
erikson initiative vs guilt (preschooler 3-6 yrs)
Preschoolers become energetic learners, despite not having all of the physical abilities necessary
to be successful at everything.
■■ Guilt may occur when preschoolers believe they have misbehaved or when they are unable to
accomplish a task.
■■ Guiding preschoolers to attempt activities within their capabilities while setting limits
-generally do not exhibit stranger anxiety and have less separation anxiety.
acitivties appropraite for preschooler (3-6yrs)
Parallel play shifts to associative play during the preschool years. Play is not highly organized, but
cooperation does exist between children.
■■ Playing ball
■■ Putting puzzles together
■■ Riding tricycles
■■ Playing pretend and dress-up activities
■■ Role playing
■■ Simple sewing
■■ Reading books
■■ Wading pools
■■ Computer programs
■■ Electronic games
school age children
6-12 years old
weight and height for school age children
Weight - School-age children will gain about 2 to 3 kg (4.4 to 6.6 lb) per year.
◯◯ Height - School-age children will grow about 5 cm (2 inches) per year.
Preadolescence is typically when prepubescence occurs.
■■ Onset of physiologic changes begins around the age of 9 years, particularly in girls.
■■ Rapid growth in height and weight occurs.
■■ Differences in the rate of growth and maturation between boys and girls becomes apparent.
■■ Visible sexual maturation is minimal in boys during preadolescence.
learns how to tell time
erikson industry vs inferiority (school age 6-12yrs)
A sense of industry is achieved through the development of skills and knowledge that allows
the child to provide meaningful contributions to society.
■■ A sense of accomplishment is gained through the ability to cooperate and compete with others.
■■ Children should be challenged with tasks that need to be accomplished, and be allowed to
work through individual differences in order to complete the tasks.
**Creating systems that reward successful mastery of skills and tasks can create a sense of
inferiority in children unable to complete the tasks or acquire the skills.
■■ Children should be taught that not everyone will master every skill.
appropriate activities for school aged kids - 6-9years old (part1)
Competitive and cooperative play is predominant.
◯◯ Children from 6 to 9 years of age
■■ Play simple board and number games.
■■ Play hopscotch.
■■ Jump rope.
■■ Collect rocks, stamps, cards, coins, or stuffed animals.
■■ Ride bicycles.
■■ Build simple models.
■■ Join organized sports (for skill building).
appropriate activities for school aged kids - 9-12yrs old (part2)
Competitive and cooperative play is predominant.
◯◯ Children from 9 to 12 years of age
■■ Make crafts.
■■ Build models.
■■ Collect things/engage in hobbies.
■■ Solve jigsaw puzzles.
■■ Play board and card games.
■■ Join organized competitive sports.
12-20 years old
physical growth for adolesents
The final 20% to 25% of height is achieved during puberty.
◯◯ Acne may appear during adolescence.
◯◯ Girls stop growing at about 2 to 2.5 years after the onset of menarche. They grow 5 to 20 cm (2 to 8 in)
and gain 7 to 25 kg (15.5 to 55 lb).
◯◯ Boys stop growing at around 18 to 20 years of age. They grow 10 to 30 cm (4 to 12 inches) and gain
7 to 30 kg (15.5 to 66 lb).
sexual maturation in female adolesents (in order)
■ Breast development
■■ Pubic hair growth (some girls experience hair growth before breast development)
■■ Axillary hair growth
sexual maturation in male adolensets (in order)
■■ Pubic hair growth
■■ Facial hair growth
■■ Vocal changes
Erikson - identity vs. role confusion
■■ Adolescents develop a sense of personal identity, and come to view themselves as unique individuals.
☐☐ Group identity - Adolescents become part of a peer group that greatly influences behavior.
Begins with close, same-sex friendships during early adolescence, which sometimes involve
sexual experimentation driven by curiosity.
■■ Self-exploration occurs through masturbation.
■■ Transition from same-sex friendships to intimate relationships with the opposite sex during
■■ In late adolescence, sexual identity typically is formed through the integration of sexual
experiences, feelings, and knowledge.
◯◯ Health perceptions - Adolescents may view themselves as invincible to bad outcomes of risky behaviors.
appropaite activities for adolesents
Nonviolent video games
◯◯ Nonviolent music
◯◯ Caring for a pet
◯◯ Career-training programs
◯◯ Social events (going to movies, school dances)
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