149 terms


A social institution that expresses belief in a divine power through social common practices, traditions, and symbols.
Extrordinary things that inspire feelings of respect. Ex. Faceing Mecca to pray, Ju-Yarmuke (yamaka).
Ordinary, commonly understood routine activities that people take for granted. Ex. Wearing hats.
Beliefs in which paranormal forces rather than beings (gods or spirits) are the dominant power in the universe. Ex. The belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects
Belief in spirit beings that inhabit the same world as humans but on another plane of existence.
Belief that one or more gods exist and they are involved in world affairs. Ex. Monotheistic, Christianity, Islam, Judaisim.
Believing in many Gods.
Believing in one God. Ex: Islam, Christianity, Judaism
Philosophical ideals of attaining harmony in personal life and in society. Ex. Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism.
A religious organization body that is more politically and socially accepted. Church and state are united. Ex. Vatican, Catholic pre-reform, Saudi Arabia (Koran).
The sub-groups of organized religion such as baptists, methodists, and presbetraian.
A small, less formally organized religious group that usually has separated from a denomination and is in a negative tension with the larger society. Ex. West Side Baptist Church.
Religions created on a whim by throwing around ideas. Ex. Kaballah.
The ability to realize ones will even against the resistance and opposition of others.
A social process through which people and groups acquire, exercise, maintain, or lose power over others.
Relatively enduring social arrangements that distribute and exercise power.
People and organizations that formulate and implement public policy.
The actualization of a threat.
A form of legitimate power that has widespread social approval and is obeyed because people believe that those who exercise it have a right to do so.
A form of authority based on custom and habit, which has its roots in the distant past and often is religiously sanctioned.
Authority based on explicit rules, regulations, and procedures that define who holds power and how power is to be exercised and distributed.
Authority based on unique personal qualities, which include the ability to excite and inspire followers.
A form of authority derived from the possession of specialized knowledge.
The ability to affect the behavior of others through persuasion, rewards, inducements, and appeals to reason.
The communication of facts, ideas, and opinions not for the audiences sake but to benefit the communicator.
Governments that have a unified administrative reach across large territories over which sovereignty is claimed.
Rules and policies that determine the organization, exercise, and transfer of government decision- making power.
Power is concentrated in the hands of a single leader, or, more commonly, is monopolized by a small elite ( an oligarchy) who govern without constitutional limits and who recognize a responsibility only to themselves, rather than to the general public.
A political system of arbitrary rule by a single individual.
A small group of elites who wield power and are accountable only to themselves.
They seek to regulate all aspects of peoples lives and transform individuals and societies in the name of some utopian vision.
A political system based on popular participation in decision making, where ultimate authority is vested in the people.
The scientific study of the size, composition, distribution, and changes in human population.
The extent of reproduction in a society.
The number of live births per year for every 1,000 people in a specific population.
The number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people in a specific population.
Population movement across political boundaries.
The number of emigrants ( people leaving a country) subtracted from the number of immigrants ( those entering it) per 1,000 population.
The numbers and types of people, classified by characteristics such as age, sex, race, and ethnicity.
How a population is dispersed geographically (e. g., the number of people per square mile).
The number of males per 100 females.
The difference between the numbers of people added to and subtracted from a particular population.
The number of years it takes for a population to double in size.
An organization dedicated to reaching the population replacement level of approximately two children per family.
Population growth develops through three distinct stages: (1) high birth and death rates (2) high birthrates and low death rates (3) low birth and death rates
The age cohort in the United States comprising those born roughly between 1945 and 1964.
conspicuous consumption
Consumers desire to express their social standing by acquiring goods and services simply for the purposes of having, displaying, and consuming them.
An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and goods and services are distributed competitively for profit.
An economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state and goods and services are distributed as a cooperative enterprise without regard to personal profit.
work as a social role
Just as norms govern our actions when we perform the roles of women or men, mothers or fathers, and friends or neighbors, they also accompany our occupational roles. Occupational roles, or the expectations that accompany a particular job, must be learned through socialization.
Enomic systems, especially capitalism, are driven by power, greed, unfair competition, and exploitation of the masses (workers who both produce and consume the goods and services) by the elites ( who control the capital, own the means of production, and reap the profits from the labor and consumption of the masses).
conflict perspective of economy
ideological support for capitalism, consumerism, affluence, and conspicuous consumption.
latent functions of advertising
VC: vital social institution to produce needed goods and services. MF: production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. F:strong economy contributes to the overall functioning of society it provides maintenance of social classes. Dsy: runaway inflation, recession or depression, and high rates of unemployment. LF: rewards people who are already rich and places burden on those who were born in poverty.
functionalist perspective of economy
Mixed Economy
Combines central elements of capitalism and socialism and allows private ownership and free enterprise to compete with businesses, industries, and services owned and operated by the state.
Schools as bureaucracies
perpetuates social inequities, hidden curriculum (learning values that keep the elite elite), and credentialism (requiring more education)
increase in cohabition, increase age of marriage, increase age of children, increase in same sex marriage, increase in step familys, increase in single mom home
Changes in the family
1. HOMOGAMY: The selection of a mate with personal and social characteristics similar to ones own.
2. HETEROGAMY: Theory of Complimentary needs- The selection of a mate with social characteristics different than ones own.
3. Sociobiology: The more attractive phenotype will contribute more offspring to the population so their alleles will increase the likelyhood in the gene pool.
4. Matching Hypothesis: The idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.
4 Mate Selection Theories
4 Types of marriage
Monogamy=husband and wife. Serial monogamy a marriage pattern in which a person has several spouses over a lifetime, but only one at a time. Polygamy: Polyandry = where one woman marries two or more men, is practiced by only a few societies. Polygyny= 1 man marries two or more women.
Power and authority in family (3 ways)
Patriarchy (the father rules the family), Matriarchy(mother rules the family), and Equalitarian (authority is evenly shared)
The systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society.
1. Size: the bigger the group the more you slack 2. Leadership: gives the group a controlled structure 3. Conformity: there are intense pressures on individuals to conform.
Factors affecting small group dynamics (3 Dynamic Factors of Small Groups)
Free Radical theory
The number of free radicals can be reduced by the use of antioxidants (vitamins, carotenoids, selenium, and phytochemicals)
Life expectancy
How long, on average, an individual is expected to live.
Continuity theory
People need to maintian their desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem.
a tax on employees and employers that is used to fund the Social Security system. Federal Insurance Contributions Act
Extended Family
a family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives
Nuclear Family
Parents and their children who live apart from other kin. OR family consisting of parents and their children and grandparents of a marital partner
Life chances
Max Weber's term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care
Prompt Income, occupation, education that describes a family's standing in society- graded on 4 factors: Income-Occupation-Address (location)-Education
4 Types of Social Stratification
1. Cast- born into -
2. Slaves- freedom is the only way to escape it-
3. Estate- land ownership- you can get more by marriage or death inherit-
4. Class- money
stratification systems
Statuses are major way stratification occurs.
Ascribed - Societal roles assigned based on ascribed status. Produces caste/estate system.
Achieved - produces class system
Social control
The ability of society and its institutions to control, manage, restrain, or direct human behavior.
1. Voluntary (internalization of social norms)- 2. Informal (someone/anyone without authority)- 3. Formal (someone with authority)
3 ways society controls the behavior of of its members
Range of tolerance
The level of deviance in which a society is willing to tolerate.
Subjectiveness of Deviance
Who, where, time, subculture context (folkways)??
Groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyles.
Cooley's Looking Glass Self
concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction.
Adult socialization

There are three ways that socialization occurs as we assume the adult roles...
1. reverse socialization (learning slag, music, clothing styles),
2. desocialization (unlearning),
3. re-socialization (learning a different set of norms, values, beliefs and behavors).
Cultural Lag
Inconsistencies in a cultural system, especially in the relationship between technology and nonmaterial culture.
A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self.
The use of multiple ( usually three) techniques to gather or analyze research data.
1. Statement of the Problem.
2. Review of the Literature.
3. Development of Hypotheses
4. Choice of Research Design.
5. Data Collection
6. Data Analysis and Interpretation
7. Development of Conclusion
Steps of Scientific Method
Quantitative Research
A research design that emphasizes the use of numbers and statistics to analyze and explain social events and human behavior. ie polls and surveys using highly precise scientific sampling methods
Qualitative Research
Based on nonnumberical information (text, written words, phrases, symbols, observations) that describes people, actions, or events in social life.
1. Auguste Comte ( 1798 1857) coined the term sociology and launched the positivistic approach to the study of sociology.
2. Herbert Spencer, (1820), "social analyst" (study observe understand just don't interfere)
3. Karl Marx ( 1818 1883) as the founder of the conflict perspective in sociology although his academic training was in history, economics, and philosophy.
4. Emile Durkheim (1858 1917) with his emphasis on social structure and social solidarity provided a strong theoretical basis for the functionalist perspective in sociology.
5. Max Weber (1864 1920), Perhaps no early sociologist had a more powerful influence on the study of social interactionism
Founders of Sociology
All human societies can be grouped into six types based on their technologies and social lives: hunting-gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agrarian, indus-trial, and postindustrial.
stages of Sociocultural evolution
Sociology is the systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society. It is based on the sociological imagination, which allows us to locate ourselves within a larger social context. It helps us to recognize the general in the particular and the strange in the familiar as well as to distinguish between personal troubles and social issues. An important aspect of sociological thinking is the ability to understand the significance of globalization while also recognizing the importance of diversity in human society
Sociology and sociological imagination
Theory Building process
basic part of any scientific process. In sociological analysis, theory-building requires critical thinking that involves both inductive and deductive reasoning.
Operational definitions
A definition that specifies how a concept is measured.
Spurious relationships
patterns of statistical but meaningless occurrence
1. Universal
2. Cumulative
3. Learned
4. Shared
4 characteristics of culture
ETHNOCENTRISM judging another cultures based off your own WHERE AS CULTURAL RELATIVISM A perspective which asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards, not ours.
ethnocentrism and cultural relativism
relativist fallacy
Viewing all cultural practices as being equally valid and worthy of respect.
EX:in its most extreme form it would treat even the most severe social pathologies, such as Nazi gas chambers and apartheid in South Africa, as legitimate cultural practices.
social structure
the ordered relationships and patterned expectations that guide social interaction:
1. Status - Occupation
2. Roles
3. Social Network - Web groups you belong to.
4. Social Institutions
1. Specialization and Division of Labor.
2. Hierarchical Structure.
3. Formal Rules, Regulations, and Procedures.
4. Impersonality.
5. Merit and Careers.
Bureaucracies (Five basic characteristics of organizational bureaucracies)
Persuit of truth and knowledge to obtain enlightenment.
Represent sacred. Religious belief symbols.
Events/actions to focus on sacred.
Bar Mitzrah ritual that brings a person to a new stage of religious life.
VC - We need answers to "BIG" questions.
(+) F - Unity (common belief/practice)
(-) Dys - War, genocide.
MF - Emotional comfort/support moral enforcer. After life assurance.
LF - (-) New religious movements.
(+) Social services, time keeping, intergenerational connections.
"The opiate of the masses." Rel - Tool to control oppressed, elite use religion as a reason/way to keep oppressed at the bottom.
Ex. Osoma Bin Ladin (up)
Sucide Bombers (down)
Representation of a nation through holidays, myths, and other traditions, that encompasses the overall culture and is associates with divinity.
Ex. Presidents Day, God Bless America, Mouth Rushmore, Ground Zero, Liberty Bell, "Founding Fathers."
Religion used to be replaced by hospitals/medicine.
VC - We want a scientific answer for death and disease.
MF - Preventions and cures. Up's life expectancy.
F - Industry, productive society.
Dys - Mal practice, ethical issues.
LF - Up's population, pill popping society, plastic surgery, attitudes about death. shift in faith.
- Acknowledge the label.
- Must try to get better.
- Comply with medical authority.
- Excused from normal activities.
Unequal distribution by social class (SES), ethnicity, gender, and global. Medicalizaton of birth, death, aging, and deviance.
Federally created for 65+. (1965)
Federally created for people in need. (1965)
POPULATION (Demographics)
World - 6.5 billion
US - 300 million
China - 1 billion
India - 1 billion
Fertility, mortality , migration.
Fertility - Marriage, healthy, social factors ie. religion, culture, economy, family, medicine.
Mortality - Degenerative diseases, communicable diseases.
Migration - emigration = leave
immigration = come in
Push/Pull Factors ----> Jobs/Economy, education, climate, political, religion, medical, and family.
Occupational Subcultures
Where co-workers share common values, norms, and attitudes not only toward their work but also life in general.As a result, the members of a particular occupational subculture often spend most of their off the job time with others in the same line of work.
When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles.
refers to statuses based on cultural heritage and shared feelings of peoplehood Example: Americans, Mexicans, Asians
Minority Groups
A category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics.
Example: Religious groups, people with disabilities, the elderly, and others, race and ethnicity are particularly important minority statuses. religious groups, people with disabilities, the elderly, and others, race and ethnicity are particularly important minority statuses.
(1) identifiability;
(2) membership based on ascription;
(3) group awareness;
(4) differential power;
(5) differential and unequal treatment.
Sociologists have identified five basic qualities of racial and ethnic minority groups including:
Races are categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics. Example skin color, hair texture, and other incidental biological traits and transform them into significant symbols of purported racial differences.
Acknowledging ones sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectations.
Deliberate and systematic elimination of minority group members.
Physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities.
What are scapegoats and think of current global example
a weak, convenient, and socially approved target. If people cannot pinpoint the source of their problems, or if they discover the source is too powerful to challenge, they may direct their anger at a scapegoat. Historically, scapegoats (usually minorities) have shouldered the blame and have paid terrible penalties for causing society ills.
For example: __________
A blending of masculine and feminine attributes.
A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group.
Example: The part in Outliners when Korea were forced to be trained to communicate in English because collectivist culture communicate differently to people in authority.
Prejudice refers to preconceived judgments toward a category of people, whereas discrimination is the unequal treatment of people because of their group membership.
Compare and contracts prejudice and discrimination
The process by which culture is passed from one generation to the next.
Prompt ENDOGAMY are norms that require people to find mates within a specific group or social category. WHERE AS EXOGAMY- is a norm that requires people to find marriage partners outside their own group or social category.
Societies that need to gain access to scarce goods or social and political networks beyond their immediate borders often practice exogamy, which is a norm that requires people to find marriage partners outside their own group or social category. Societies that wish to retain power, prestige, or property within groups usually take the opposite approach, establishing norms that require people to find mates within a specific group or social category, a pattern called endogamy. Because of social stratification, most societies exert strong pressures to marry within ones class as well as Families racial, ethnic, and religious group. In the United States, exogamy continues to be rare for African Americans because of socially constructed boundaries between black and white Americans. Low socioeconomic status and geo-graphic concentration help perpetuate endogamy among Cajuns in Louisiana as well.
What is the difference between Exogamy and Endogamy?
Two or more closely related families who share a household and are economically and emotionally bound to others in the group.
Cultural understanding of what constitutes masculinity and femininity in a society.
Bringing together people from diverse social backgrounds so that they share common social experiences and develop commonly held norms, attitudes, and beliefs.
A network of people whose social relationships are based on common ancestry (blood), marriage, adoption, and/ or affiliation (e. g., godparents).
MONOGAMY is one woman and one man married. SERIAL MONOGAMY is when a person has several spouses over a lifetime, but only one at a time.
In most industrial societies the only socially acceptable and legal form of marriage is monogamy the marriage of one woman and one man. In America and many other industrialized countries, with high divorce rates, how-ever, a large part of the population practices serial monogamy a marriage pattern in which a person has several spouses over a lifetime, but only one at a time.
Whats the difference between Monogamy and Polygamy
2 Variants in for Polygamy
1. Polyandry where one woman marries two or more men, is practiced by only a few societies;
2. Polygyny, where a man marries two or more women, is the most common marital pattern throughout the preindustrial world. There are numerous other forms of marriage that are historically rare, including group marriage, where two or more husbands have two or more wives, and same- sex marriages.
1 or 2 parents and there unmarried off spring.
Parents and their children who live apart from other kin.
Biological and physical differences between females and males.
Sexual orientation
Refers to the choice of sexual partners and consists of heterosexuality ( partners of the opposite sex), homosexuality ( same- sex partners), and bisexuality ( partners of both sexes).
Conflict Perceptive on Gender
Gender roles are based on cultural tradition and are taught and
reinforced by those in power. In the case of gender roles, men have enjoyed numerous economic, political, and social advantages, and they have a vested interest in keeping women in a subordinate role. Continued domination by males requires a belief system that supports gender inequality.
Two beliefs
1. Women are inferior outside the home.
2. Women are more valuable in the home.
Conflict theorists point out that although mass education is emphasized and has the potential to promote equality, in both capitalist and socialist societies the educational institution promotes and perpetuates inequality. This analysis focuses on unequal access to schooling and inequality among schools, schools hidden curriculum, how educational credentials enable schools to act as screening devices for society, and the link between educational attainment and unequal occupational opportunities.
Conflict Perspective on Education
Conflict Perspective on faimily
Strug- struggle for wealth, power, and prestige.
MSB-Men advance their interests and privileges at the expense of women and children.
VC: gradual decline until death
F: Relief of social pressures faced by younger adult. They can retire (stop doing stuff they can't or no longer want to do)
Dsy: Social disengagement. Cut themselves off from socialization.
MF: The old are replaced by the new. Opens jobs for younger adults.
LF: Failures to regains the diversity among the aged population.
Functional perspective on Aging
VC: The family is fundamental for society
F: Providing economic support and physical protection.
Dys: You can't change the family that you belong to.
MF: Family provides socialization
LF: Can cause deviate from normative expectations or produce instability "failure to launch"
Functionalist perceptive of Family
VC: Education is the foundation to socialization. Most likely it is the most vital social institution for society.
F: In general, it teaches literacy and informed society (self-governing) and anticipatory socialization (teaching the knowledge and skills necessary for the successful fulfillment of future roles and statuses).
Dsy: Beyond the elementary and secondary levels, unequal access to higher educational opportunities resurfaces as a major issue.
MF: an equal opportunity and facilitates achievement.
LF: Delays entry into the labor market and isolates peer groups.
"One of the latent functions of elementary schools in the United States is that they serve as one of the largest day- care systems in the world."
Functionalist Prospective on Education
The institutionalized process of systematically teaching certain cognitive skills and knowledge and transmitting them from one generation to the next.
VC - Males and Females are different, and are expected to behave according to their assigned gender.
F: The function to bind men and women together into a family unit, solidifying the structure of the family; that, in turn, contributes to the overall functioning of society.
Dys: Gender categorizing everybody all the time limits human potential
MF: Women give birth and nurse a child, it is natural that they will take care of it in other ways
LF: Hormone imbalance may produce a hermaphrodite, a child born with some combination of male and female genitalia
Functionalists perspective on gender
Gender and gender roles are learned through socialization process.
Women are socialized into expressive roles; men are socialized into instrumental roles.
Men are more likely than women to:Change topics of conversation
Ignore topics chosen by women
Minimize ideas of women
Interrupt women
Interactionist perspective on gender
Views social meaning as arising through the process of social interaction ( often referred to as interactionism).
Symbols (Crosses), Language, Values (Commonly held standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable, etc.)
3 components of culture
Dehumanization "iron cage", ritualisim "that's not my job", promoting people that aren't qualified "peter principal".
Problems With
1. Attacked
2. Alliances/Allies
3. Threat to our "way of life".
4. Protection of the "innocent".
5. Premption (Pre-strike. You think something is going to happen.)
6. Clear Enemy
Grow and Strike = War Support
6 REASONS Norms, Values, and Beliefs of War