21 terms

WHAP Ch. 21- Gunpowder Empires

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Gun Powder Empires
Scholars often use the term gunpowder empires to describe the Asian empires of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal., Refers to the middle eastern but mainly the Ottoman Empire's large-scale empire that relied heavily on firearms to maintain dominion.
Vizer
The head of the Ottoman central bureaucracy
The Ottoman Empire
This empire did not develop economically and instead worked to maintain military control over many different ethnicities. Rather than advances, this Empire maintained the status quo as Western Europe bcame much more advanced. , Took over Turkey from the Byzantine Empire and strived to expand its borders into Eastern Europe, mainly fighting the Holy Roman Empire and its various princes throughout the Middle Ages. Constanople the center. Over time it started to shrink and grow weaker, it was dismantled after WWI.
Mehmed II
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
Ghazi
"warriors for Islam" military society, strict code of conduct, raided Byzantine Empire
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
The Safavid Empire
Controlled most of the middle east stretching into Turkey. the nation was of mixed ancestry and thanks to modernizing their military they were able to conquer faster. The revival of a Persian empire in-between the east and west. Control through religion Shi'a Islam. Architectural innovations and appreciated the arts.
Ismail
A great Safavid ruler who, at the age of 14, conquered much of the territory that became the Safavid Empire. He was a religious tyrant who made Shi'ia the state religion.
Twelver Shiism
A belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion.
Battle of Chaldiran
16th Century. The Safavids vs the Ottomans; Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together; religious war (Shi'ites Vs. Sunnis).
Millet System
Divided regions in the Ottoman Empire by religion (Orthodox Christians, Jews, Armenian Christians, Muslims). Leaders of each millet supported the Sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
Janassaries
elite group of soldiers who are loyal to only the sultan (christian boys being brainwashed)
Devshirme
Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
The Mughal Empire
East of the Safavid Empire, in India, the Mughals united a large and diverse empire like the ottomans. They left a cultural heritage known for poetry and architecture.
Akbar
1494 inherited kingdom, 11 year old, led military-expanded his kingdom to include much of present day Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death
The Taj Mahal
The tomb and monument to a ruler's wife; built in 1650 in Agra, India; outstanding example of Muslim architecture
Mullahs
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism
Cultural Conservatism
many Muslims being oblivious to European technological developments (scientific instruments and printing presses) and cultural developments (Enlightenment ideas)
Istanbul
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
Isfahan
Persian capital from the 16th to 18th centuries under the Safavid Empire. Still a major cultural center of Iran today.
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