Auyero 2010) the exchange of material rewards for political support
A three-way relationship between the patron, the broker, and the client.
Clientelism is not necessarily seen as a sign of corruption by the working class, as the broker, one who lives among them in the slums, is the one acting, not the politician.
The brokers are seen as nice and helpful by their "inner circle" (those whom they have a personal relationship with), as they are trusted among the slums and provide much needed food and medicine.
The "inner circle" supports them politically in order to return their gratitude or fulfill what is expected of them when they receive these supplies.
However, brokers are often seen by their neighbors as "corrupt" and "greedy" politicians who "play their own game" outside of this circle. They are often blamed for the limited amount of social programs that exist in the slums.
"Political clientelism"- the distribution of resources (or promise of) by political office holders or political candidates in exchange for political support, primarily through the form of vote.
A recurrent theme between the political elite and the poor masses in Latin America
Undoubtedly a form of social and political control, and cultural domination
Legacies of Peronism
Strong party identification
Massive expansion of organized labor: improvements in real labor and the rights of workers
Strong (but not necessarily democratic) labor movement
Political stalemate → economic volatility
Polarization and stereotyping (Milanesio, 2010)
A racialization of Peronists by anti-Peronists
However, racialization was subordinate to strong classism
Discrimination was targeted towards poor and working class people that happened to be dark-skinned who were Peronists and recent migrants to the city
The term gracita (greaser) was given to the Peronists, meaning that they were cheap with bad taste
Eva Peron took the word and made it to affectionately refer to the poor.
There was also migrant stereotyping by the city dwellers, who saw the migrants as foolish and simple
The city-dweller by contrast, was seen as savvy and sophisticated (European)
Upper and middle classes viewed the migrants as foreigners forcing them out of the city
The fears of mistaken class identity became the forefront for anti-Peronism and city dwellers.
Peronist protesters specifically wore laboring clothes, contrasting the perception that Peronists were unemployed, beggars, crooks, gangsters, and petty criminals
The migrants rejected their rural clothes but didn't always adopt the fashion of the middle class, creating a new identity